In everyday life, we use our memory widely to carry out daily tasks. Memory is a topic that has become a primary focus in investigation for many years. According to Goldstein (2011), memory is a process involved in retaining, retrieving, and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas, and skills after the original information is no longer present. Memory stores and retrieves information. The Atkinson-Shiffrin model is a theory of human memory that was proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffin in 1968. The theory labelled as “stage theory” is widely accepted and the focus of the model is on how memory is stored. There are three main structure features that contain different physiological properties namely sensory memory,
…show more content…
Iconic memory stores the information in image form. The visual image represents an information (Sternberg, 2006). For example, when a lighter sparker is played and a circle is drawn in the air. At the same time the circle is seen briefly but actually it not a circle it just a point. The circle is seen because human visual memory retains the point. The persistence of vision is the retention of the light perception in human mind. Another sensory store is echoic memory. Echoic memory retains the information from the sound and retaining a few second after original stimulus (Goldstein, 2005). Sensory memory records many incoming information but it retains the information just for a few second. Cognitive psychologists noted that sensory memory is important to human due to the fact that sensory memory allows human to gather the information for processing and fills up the blank when stimulation is fitful. When the initial processing is going on, sensory memory retains information briefly (Goldstein, 2005).
Sensory memory then sends some information to short-term memory. Short term memory holds the information in 15-20 seconds. The information will retain in larger seconds when the information is rehearsed (Goldstein, 2006). For example, the number is repeated when remembering a person’s telephone number. In this stage, most of the information is lost and only some of the information is transferred to long term