From his rise to power to the fall of his dictatorship, Mussolini aimed at regenerating the Italian population to form a powerfull and united Nation centered around the fatherland and its leader. An aim that is, in 1919, difficult to instore in an Italy still segmented by huge economical differences, divergent social consciousness and marked an instable political sphere. However, the Italian society of the after war period in 1918 favored the installation of a new national religion based on the importance of the Nation and of a powerfull man able of guiding it. Indeed, the end of the war marked a turning point in the national history of the country: first manifestations of national consciousness aroused, a
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Even though the idea of governing a country by turning its political sphere and influence into a political religion had already arouse in Europe during the period of the utopian socialism in the 18th century2, Benito Mussolini is the only leader at this time to practice politics and the cult of his persona as a religion. The Italian historian Emilio Gentile defines this movement as the “sacralization of politics” and explains it as a religion who wants to “infondere nelle coscienze di milioni di italiani la fede nei dogmi di una nuova religione laica che sacralizzava lo Stato, assegnandogli una primaria funzione pedagogica con lo scopo di trasformare la mentalità, il carattere e il costume degli italiani per generare un uomo nuovo, credente e praticante nel culto del fascismo”.3
Hence, the political arena's policies controlled all the aspects of the population's daily lives by establishing a new civic religion around the one each Italian would unite to form a strong social body. To assess the impact the sacralisation of politics had on the population is subjective considering the violence and fear it breeded.
Firstly, the Fascist state extended