Baum And Behaviorism

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How does Baum define ‘behaviorism’ and how is this different from a science of behavior?
Baum defines “behaviorism” as a philosophy of science. Behaviorism is different from a science of behavior because it is a set of ideas about the science of behavior analysis, but itself is not a science.

Historically, what distinguishes science from philosophy?
Historically, science is distinguished from philosophy due to the origins in which they were both created and implemented. Philosophy is based on assumptions and conclusions that are not able to be empirically determined. These conclusions are often made in the context of phenomena and religion. Furthermore, science is directly observing the phenomena in order to make reliable conclusions about
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Ultimately, it would be impossible to have reliable findings because two peoples’ perceptions may be different leading to no interrater reliability.

How did the work of Donders initiate the objective study of psychological phenomena?
The work of Donders initiated the objective study of psychological phenomena because he was able to show that with his work with astronomy, two people with different mental processes struggle to show a reliable agreement in relation to judgment time. This conclusion led to the discovery that choice a mental process could be studied not with introspection, but with objective experiments.

What initiated the study of comparative psychology? What problems did comparative psychology have with regard to anthropomorphism?
The study of comparative psychology was initiated by the theory of evolution because humans were no longer separated from other species of animals. Ultimately, just as species development can be tracked, comparative psychologists believe our mental processes can be tracked for further historical understanding. Additionally, comparative psychology had problems in regard to anthropomorphism because guessing animal behavior is too theoretical and unable to be proven unless there is the inclusion of experimental
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10 were similar because they both displayed Watson’s intense discontent in the understanding of behavior based on unreliable methods and irrelevant subject matter. However, the two quotes differ because the quote regarding introspection is related to lack of training and interrater reliability issues while the second quote is related to hypothetical mental processes and the irrelevant focus on consciousness.

What were the problems with Watson’s behaviorism? How did Skinner address these problems?
The problems with Watson’s behaviorism were related to the struggle in defining his scientific explanatory terms. Skinner addressed these problems by developing the terms Watson created in order to prove the true meaning of these words via science.

What are free will and determinism? How have some tried to make them compatible?
Free will is the power people have to make their own choices and determine their own actions. Determinism is related to the world being a scientific ally and orderly place. Dennett tried to make them compatible because free will being defined as deliberation could be considered a behavior that ultimately could be explained by heredity and past environment. Hebb also attempted to make them compatible by showing a dependent relationship between free will on inheritance and past environmental history. However, this regards free will as simply a

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