Types Of The Immune System Essays

1480 Words Mar 28th, 2016 6 Pages
Brandy Lauder broke a toe and had to get orthopedic surgery to get it repaired. She was then prescribed antibiotics for ten days. The antibiotics depleted the bacteria that kept Clostridium difficile under control, which caused her to get a debilitating infection. She first got diarrhea and then went into shock. Her intestines swelled up and she had to get surgery to give room to her swollen and blood-deprived organs.

The bacterium that caused her infection was Clostridium difficile. The bacteria already lived in her colon, but it was kept under control by other bacteria in the colon.

C. difficile gets past innate immune barriers by secreting toxins A and B (Solomon). Toxins A and B attack intestinal epithelial cells, which causes a proinflammatory cytokine release (Solomon). Proinflammatory cytokine release causes neutrophil infiltration, which causes excessive inflammation and tissue damage (Solomon). Also, Toxin A, or TcdA, attaches to monocytes and promotes apoptosis (i.e., programmed cell death); monocytes are major components of the immune system (Solomon).

The bacterium started causing trouble after her 10-day prescription of antibiotics. The antibiotics wiped out the bacteria that kept C. difficile under control and thus, C. difficile began to proliferate and caused her terrible infection

C. difficile causes disease through quorum signaling and the subsequent release of toxins A and B (Darkoh et al.). The pathogenic version of C. difficile makes these…

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