Essay on Theories of Development

2701 Words Jan 26th, 2013 11 Pages
Theories of Development
Ronny Wagner
PSY Child and Adolescent Development
Instructor: Daniella Atwell
September 10, 2012

Theories of Development Child development from birth to adulthood was largely ignored throughout much of early history. The knowledge of child development is essential in allowing us to understand the cognitive, physical, and psychosocial growth that children go through from birth into early adulthood. There is much debate whether emotional responses are genetic, as we are born with them, or are they learned from our environment. This is known as the nature vs. nature debate. Children were often viewed simply as small versions of adults and little attention was paid to progress in reference to cognitive,
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He believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages during which the pleasure-seeking energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas. This psycho sexual energy was described as the driving force behind behavior. If these stages are completed successfully, the result is a healthy personality. If certain issues are not resolved at the appropriate stage, fixation can occur. A fixation is a persistent focus on an earlier psychosexual stage. Until this conflict is resolved, the person will remain in this stage. For example, a person who is fixated at the oral stage may be over-dependent on others and may seek stimulation through smoking, drinking, or eating. According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, personality is composed of three elements. These elements of personality, known as the id, the ego, and the superego all work together to create complex human behaviors.
Id: The id is the only component of personality that is present at birth. Freud believed that the id is the source of all psychic energy, and is entirely unconscious meaning it is instinctive and includes primitive behaviors. The id is driven by the pleasure principle and strives for immediate gratification satisfying all desires, wants, and needs. If these needs are not satisfied immediately, there is a state of anxiety or tension. An example would be an increase in hunger should produce an immediate attempt to eat. The id is very important in life for the infant.

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