Theories Of Cognitive Development Theories
The purpose of this paper is to discuss cognitive development research and theories. The four theorists discussed in this work are Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, B.F. Skinner, and Lev Vygotsky. Cognitive development is described as the way someone would construct thought processes and learn different skills such as remembering, problem solving, and making decisions from the time someone is a child until they are an adult.
Jean Piaget Jean Piaget was best known for his earlier work on cognitive development. Piaget was one of the very first psychologists to really take an in depth look at cognitive development and to complete studies on the subject. Piaget’s beliefs stem from the basic idea that a child’s cognitive …show more content…
Piaget says that every child goes through four stages of development: sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operations stage, and formal operations stage. Sensorimotor stage generally happens from birth to age two. Sensorimotor stage is when a child learns that things still exist even when they aren’t in sight. The preoperational stage happens between 2 and 7 years old. Basically the preoperational stage is when a child learns that a word or an object can stand for something else. The concrete operational stage happens age 7 through 11. Concrete operational stage is when the child can work things out mentally instead of physically acting them …show more content…
Vygotsky suggests that children do most of their learning from watching and interacting with others. He takes into consideration both the social and cultural experiences of each individual child. The other theories discussed in this work do not take culture into consideration, especially contradicting Piaget’s theory which suggests the stages are universal across cultures. Vygotsky places a huge emphasis on the role of language and learning. He also says that a child is born with all the tools needed to progress, so he thinks it’s very biological. He also looks at different stages of play and how a child develops through them.
Stages of Play Vygotsky’s different stages of play are functional, constructive, parallel, onlooker, associative, and cooperative. Functional play would be playing with toys and exploring them on their own. Constructive play is playing with a purpose, like to build a fort. Parallel play is children playing next to each other but not with each other. Onlooker play is basically just watching another kid play. Associative play is sharing but not necessarily playing together. Finally, Cooperative play is playing together and sharing.
In conclusion, although these theories differ, they all have some similarities. Most of them suggest stages of learning throughout different ages. They all agree that a child progresses as it learns new things as well. These theories all have their strong points