The Molecular Progression Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Essay

1407 Words Sep 28th, 2015 null Page
Progression and Staging
The molecular progression of hepatocellular carcinoma is not known, because in most cases the cancer is not identified until it has reached advanced stage. The symptoms found in advanced stage hepatoma include decompensated stage cirrhosis, which encompass occurrences such as edema, ascites and portal hypertension. Major symptoms also include jaundice, weight loss, dark urine, chalky bowel movements, tiredness, weakness, nausea, vomiting and right upper quadrant pain and or a large lump in the region. Due to the advanced stage of diagnosis hepatocellular carcinoma the prognosis of the disease is quite grim. In most cases by the time the cancer is identified the chances for a cure are very slim, it is at this point doctors focus on either quality of life or extending one’s life through treatment or therapy.
Although the molecular progression of hepatoma has yet to be identified, there are many markers of the disease that can be identified during screening. AFP, otherwise known as a-Fetoprotein in an earlier indicator of patients developing hepatocellular carcinoma. Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA), Des-y-Carboxy Prothrombin (DCP) Glypican-3 (GPC3), Golgi Protein 73 (GP73), cytokines, insulin-like growth factors (IGF), Interleukin 6 and 10 (IL-6 & 10), y-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT), a-L-Fucosidase (AFU), and others are seen as developmental markers of HCC tumors. (Valvarde, 2011.)
The most common staging system for hepatocellular carcinoma is the widely…

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