The Importance Of Sugarcane

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Sugarcane (Saccharumofficinarum L.) is one of the most important mono cotyledon crop crops widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions which belongs to the family of Poaceae. It is an octaploid crop with a chromosome number of 2n = 8x = 80. Being highly cross-pollinated in nature, this crop requires specific, hot and humid climate for flowering (Gill et al., 2006).
The sugar from the sugarcane accounts for about 70% of the worlds’ total sugar production (Comstock and Miller 2004) the rest around 30% comes from sugar beet .It is economically important cash crop in the tropical and subtropical regions of many countries. The importance of sugarcane has increased in recent years because it comes to be a good candidate as industrial raw
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Today, it is cultivated as a commercial crop in nearly 120 countries in the world (Belay et al., 2014). Brazil, India and China are the major growers of sugarcane accounting for more than 50% of world sugar production; Ethiopia also commercially produced.
The total area under sugarcane cultivation in the world is large. Mostly, in Africa and Ethiopia is about 23.9 million ha, 1.58 million ha and 19000 ha with cane production of 1.71 billon, 89.59 million and 2.4millon tons, and also an average yield of 71.7, 56.81 and 126.9 tons/ha, respectively (FAOSTAT, 2012). Currently, 300, 000 tons sugar produces in Ethiopia in every year, which covers only 60% domestic consumption (ESC, 2014). In addition to this the annual per capital sugar consumption in the world, Africa and Ethiopia was 243, 16.06 and 5.5kg/year respectively (ISO,
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,(2012) success fully studies in vitro propagation was dependent upon plant growth regulators, genotype and type of explants For example , the combination of BAP (0.2-6 mg/l) or BA(0-3mg/l) and NAA (0.1- 1 mg/l) were reported better for shoot Multiplication and controlling morphogenesis influencing factor (Song et al.,2010; Abdu et al., 2012). Yadav and Ahmad. ,(2013)and Derejeet al., (2014) reported that NAA (0.5-7m/g) alone is best alternative for vigorous of rooting. In vitro propagation is used specifically to refer to the application of tissue culture technique to regenerate and propagation of plants from single cell, tissue and organs by culturing them under sterile and controlled environmental condition (Hartmann et al., 1990). Hoy et al. ,(2003) also reported genotype and type of explant source affecting genetic uniformity resulting from tissue culture. Therefore, micro propagation through apical meristem is the best choice and alternative method for propagation because it produces genetically uniform plantlets with that of mother plant and multiplication rate also more rapid (Ali et al., 2008). (Parmessurv et al., 2002)reported that propagation used apical meristem was widely used to produce virus-free plants .Therefore, considering this importance researchers have been tried to develop a protocols for in vitro propagation of sugarcane using apical meristem explants (Cheema and Hussian, 2004; Singh et al., 2006;Uzma et

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