Blood Type Lab Report

Improved Essays
In humans, a single gene in the body determines blood type, whether it be A, B, AB, or O. This gene determines what type of antigen protein (if there is any in the first place) is attached to a red blood cell’s membrane. The gene is designated as I, and it has three common alleles, which include IA, IB, and i. Different combinations of these three alleles produce four different phenotypes, more commonly referred to as Blood Type A (homozygous IAIA or heterozygous IAi), Blood Type B (homozygous IBIB or heterozygous IBi), Blood Type AB (heterozygous IAIB), and Blood Type O (homozygous ii). The allele IA provides the presence of an A antigen on red blood cells, while the IB allele is responsible for the presence of the B antigen. Type AB blood has both A and …show more content…
The i allele results in no antigen in the body. IA and IB are both codominant, while i is recessive. The blood type of a human is a complex matter, but determining it is not. Through the observation of chemical changes, it is possible to determine the blood type of any individual. Each of the four blood types (A, B, AB, and O) has a specific reaction to Anti-A and Anti-B serums. By observing these changes, the blood type of anyone can be identified. Even though all blood is made from the same elements, not all blood is identical. In fact, there are at least four different types of human blood. What makes one person’s blood different from another’s is the absence or presence of specific proteins, called agglutinogens (short for agglutinating antigens) (Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences, 2015). Fundamentally, an agglutinogen is specific antigen that simulates the production of an agglutinin, such as an antibody (Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences, 2015). An agglutinin is a type of substance (like an antibody) that is capable of causing an agglutination reaction in a particular antigen, chiefly red blood

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    Adaptive Immune Response

    • 785 Words
    • 4 Pages

    They can be attached to the B cell receptor as an immunoglobulin receptor or in secretory form in fluid. Different antibodies will have different structure of hypervariable regions, which will produce different shapes of antigen-binding sites. Variation in shape of antigen binding sites can increase affinity. Any given antigen has different epitopes that are recognised by a different antibody. The hypervariable regions are mutated for production of high affinity antibodies.…

    • 785 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Decent Essays

    The first step involves incubation of the primary antibody with the antigen. The second step involves a labelled secondary (e.g. an enzyme) antibody that detects the primary antibody getting incubated. The volume of antibody to a certain antigen is indicated by the production of colour. 11.…

    • 741 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Vismodegib is a molecule inhibitor of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway (Pricl 389). The pathogenesis of BCC is the inapposite activation of the Hh pathway. A molecule on the Hh pathway binds to the receptor on the PTCH1 resulting in inactivation, which then prevent the inactivation of the SMO receptor (Pricl 390). The two main signaling pathways that are most often affected in tumor…

    • 808 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    When I think about Sickle Cell Anemia, the first thing that comes to my mind is blood. When you get cut and a darkish red liquid comes out, that is called blood. Blood is a red liquid that carries nutrients, gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide, and iron throughout our body. (1) Blood connects to Sickle Cell Anemia because Sickle Cell Anemia is a disease that changes the shape of our blood cells. Instead of being circle, it becomes a sickle shape.…

    • 1849 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Blood type AB has both antigen A and B, but neither anti-A or B antibodies. The agglutination that occurred was a result of the presence of both antigens A and B reacting with the anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies. Antigens A and B recognized these anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies foreign to the cell, hence, an immune response took place. The positive was determined because there was a reaction in well Rh, proving that the Rh antigen was present. Type AB+ blood is considered to be a universal recipient because it lacks anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies.…

    • 1445 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    If the person has antigen-A and B then the person has AB blood and lacks A and B antibodies. If a person is an O then he/she has antibodies against both A and B. Blood typing is used for identification in forensics, and paternity tests. Blood typing is also used to determine the safety of blood transfusions; type A blood cannot accept type B blood because person A’s blood contain antibodies against antigen-B. Another factor of blood is the Rh factor, a protein on red blood cells, and people can either be Rh-positive or…

    • 725 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    As large numbers of white blood cells called lymphocytes aggregate in the thyroid and produce antibodies a chain reaction occurs initiating the autoimmune response. This destruction inhibits the production and release of the hormones T4 and T3. Three main causes have been attributed to the development of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, including environmental, genetic and endogenous factors. The environmental factors attributed to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis include, low iodine intake, drugs, chemicals, and infections. While the genetic factors include Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) gene, protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor-type 22 (PTPN22) gene, vitamin D receptor gene, and cytokine genes.…

    • 902 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Antibodies are sometimes produced when the immune system mistakenly considers a healthy tissue, as a dangerous one, and creates antibodies against it. This is called an “autoimmune disorder”. [8] 2.1.3. “Antigens” An antigen can be any foreign substance capable…

    • 2176 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Analysis Of GUK1 Result

    • 2010 Words
    • 9 Pages

    The network revealed that there were essentially two major isoform expressed in this tissue (ENST00000453943) contains exon 1b, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8 and 9 (truncated) and (ENST00000312726) contains exon 1b, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. However, there appeared to be evidence of four minor isoforms which were two proteins coding (ENST00000366730 and ENST00000412265) and two processed transcripts (ENST00000469973 and ENST00000498092) expressed in this tissue. All these four minor isoforms can be visualised from the small branch nodes emerging out from the network. GUK1 gene in brain tissue contains exon 1a, 1b, 1c, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, and it supports the brain network structure. In this network, the truncated exon 9 can be visualised at the end of the network shows a thin…

    • 2010 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    This form of immunity is antigen-specific because it is capable of remembering a previous antigen. Because it is able to remember and recognize its previous foes, adaptive immunity can generate antibody-mediated immunity (AMI) and/or cell-mediated immunity (CMI). AMI, also known as humoral immune response, is normally found in the humours or body fluids and consists of antibodies produced by B cells. These antibodies are responsible for recognizing non-self-antigens in the blood or body fluids. If antigens escape form the blood or body fluids and enter a cell, antibodies become useless (Pommerville, 2011).…

    • 816 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays