ABO blood group system

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    There are several genetic variants in the DNA sequence of the ABO gene that give rise to ABO subgroups. The most important of these are the A1 and A2 subgroups, which differ in the activity of their transferase enzyme gene products. The transferase activity in A2 individuals is less efficient in catalyzing the formation of the A antigen from the H antigen compared with those in the A1 subgroup, resulting in lower expression of A antigen. Type A2 individuals have relatively fewer Type I, Type III and Type IV carrier chains than Type A1 individuals. The difference in carbohydrate sequence is thought to explain why a small percentage of A2 and A2B individuals produce anti-A1 antibody, which can cause discrepancies in determining their blood type.…

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    Blood Grouping

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    There is a variety of blood groups and antigens present in different human bodies, which depend on either polymorphism or inheritance. Blood grouping has a clinical significance, for example; we need blood grouping in cases of transfusion to avoid incompatibility, which often leads to blood clumping and agglutination then eventually death of patients, not only that but they are also important in pregnancies in cases of maternal fetal incompatibility. Each blood type has its own advantage like…

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    the donation of a pint of blood and why? As reticulocytes (immature red blood cells having no nucleus, but containing a granular/reticulated look) increases additional numbers of immature red blood cells gather into the blood stream compensating for the decrease in the volume of blood. Reticulocyte is made up of eighty percent of a normal red blood cell’s hemoglobin and typically is expected to become a fully mature red blood cell within 24 hours (CNX, 2016). Describe the three phases of the…

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    ABO Blood Group Essay

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    Prior to WWII many anthropologists maintained that race was a biological phenomenon best ascertained through the use of anthropometric measurements. After the war, however, a growing number of anthropologists along with geneticists and serologists began to rethink the race concept and its attendant methodologies. Prompted by political and social events as well as empirical shifts brought on by the modern synthesis, these scientists sought more "objective" and "scientifically valid" methods for…

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    It categorises a person’s blood type according to the antigens found on the surfaces of their red blood cells. This blood grouping system was discovered in 1901 by Austrian scientist Karl Landsteiner (Durand & Willis, 2010) and is a system of classification that still exists today. The ABO blood grouping system is controlled by the ABO gene, which is found on chromosome 9 and has three alleles A, B and O (Farhud & Yeganeh, 2013). Further research undertaken in 1940 by Landsteiner and Alexander…

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    of this ABO-Rh Blood Typing Experiment is to identify the individual blood types and observe the reactions between antigens and antibodies. Blood is typed by the presence or absence of a specific antigen/s in the plasma membrane of a red blood cell. Depending upon the antigen/antibody reaction, we will be able to identify the unknown blood types in each of the samples. Blood typing is extremely significant in the world we live in today. If you ever intend on donating blood or, in an extreme…

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    Anti-Serum Lab Essay

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    Introduction: In this lab, we took a blood sample of Mr. Green’s blood to figure out his blood type and to see how the blood sample reacts to Anti-A serum, Anti-B serum, and Anti-Rh serum. Anti-Serum is a blood serum that contains antibodies that are against a specific antigen, it is used to protect or treat a specific disease. This lab is also important because it shows the importance of knowing the blood type of a person so that the person will not receive the wrong type of blood. Blood type O…

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    Describe which blood types he can receive safely and why these are compatible with his Type B Blood types are distinguished by the presence or absence of antigens (A and B) on the surface of the red blood cells. This patient has Type B blood meaning that there is only a B antigen on his red blood cells. The compatible blood types are Type B since it matches the patient’s blood type and Type O negative, which is considered universal. Type O negative blood does not contain antigen A or B,…

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    Blood Type Lab Report

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    In humans, a single gene in the body determines blood type, whether it be A, B, AB, or O. This gene determines what type of antigen protein (if there is any in the first place) is attached to a red blood cell’s membrane. The gene is designated as I, and it has three common alleles, which include IA, IB, and i. Different combinations of these three alleles produce four different phenotypes, more commonly referred to as Blood Type A (homozygous IAIA or heterozygous IAi), Blood Type B (homozygous…

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    Identify Blood Groups

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    Everyone has heard of the blood types A, B, AB, and O, but not everyone understands what these letters mean. A blood type or blood group is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells. When you receive a blood transfusion, doctors have to make sure it is a match to your blood type, if not it can kill you (Wayman, 2012). The blood types A, B, AB, and O are known as the ABO blood group (Wayman, 2012). This blood…

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