Social Model Of Health

Good Essays
Each model of health holds a different idea of what ‘health’ is and what it means to be ‘healthy’. Being healthy is viewed as important as it affects how people experience illness and how they treat those who are ill (Baum, 2008). Some models look at health through a medical lens, whereas others view it from a social perspective. This essay will look at two models of health and discuss how they view health, how it aims to improve overall health and the limitations of the model. The models that will be discussed are the biomedical model and the social model. These two models will also be compared against each other and discuss the common interests they share.

The biomedical model, also known as the ‘clockwork definition’, is seen as being the
…show more content…
The social model views health as being influenced by political, economic, social, psychological, cultural, environment and biological factors. This means that health can and is influenced by things such as education, employment, the social gradient and so on. Some of factors come about by choices an individual makes and others are out of their control (School of Public Health, 2016). This model places a great emphasis on positive health and ways to improve health (Jones, 1997). This model argues that individuals can’t be viewed and treated as separate from the environment and social constructs they live in. Another argument the social model makes is that good health is rare and that disease is a result of inequality. This model came about through the critique and limitations of the medical model that failed to take into account the social determinants of health, as well as compelling evidence provided by the Whitehall study that showed higher death rates among the participants with lower occupation grades (School of Public Health, 2016). During the 19th century it was found that serious diseases such as tuberculosis and cholera were more common within the lower socioeconomic classes while those higher up in society were less affected. This shows how inequality plays a crucial role in the health of society. This model allows for a better understanding of health and how …show more content…
They believe that this idea will bring attention to the environmental issues that are causing ill health (White, 2009). This model also holds that society must step up and take some of the responsibility of poor health upon themselves (Fanany & Fanany, 2012). The social model also looks at the genetic predisposition some have towards certain diseases such as type 2 Diabetes and how social factors can turn this genetic predisposition into reality. Some of these factors include the inability to afford healthy food resulting in the consumption of unhealthy foods that can accelerate the development of diabetes. It also looks at the factors that are associated with poverty that contribute to poor health (School of Public Health, 2016).
Just as before with the biomedical model, the social model does have its own limitations. One of these limitations is that it does not include the spiritual dimensions found in Māori and Pacific health models. Another limitation of this model is that the social model is so broad that health overtakes all aspects of one’s life. An important limitation of this model is that it believes that solutions are a political issue and not so much an individual issue (School of Public Health,

Related Documents

  • Decent Essays

    Their similarities talk about the multiple social determinants of health, how it decreases or increases control over one’s life regarding access to safe neighborhoods, health care, healthy foods, education, and clean air. It also, deals with how environmental disparity exist between high and low-income groups, racial/ethnic and health care and the risk factors associated with it. Therefore, the need for community leaders, physicians, and public health workers to understand the support and barriers in the environment in which they find themselves and the people they serve while addressing environmental influence on community health. Regarding differences, Erika R talks about disparities between high and low-income US Counties and how it leads to diseases and premature death. Carol R. Horowitz talks about limited availability and cost of diabetes-healthy foods for the minority group, and Maida P Galvez speaks of the lack of large stores with healthy food that leads to the cause of diabetics among the people of East Harlem.…

    • 1722 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    On the basis of the theoretical approaches (from sociology and social psychology areas) and health (health care) models presented in Chapter 1“Health and Illness. Sociological and Social-psychological approaches” I managed to reveal some major ideas. As evaluative concepts, health and illness can be largely viewed as ways and mecha-nisms in which a certain population perceived health upon specific value system, cultural as-pects, social norms and attitudes of this population. On the other hand, a scientific approach cannot ignore objective evidences on health, based on measurable indicators of diseases status. There I contoured several conclusions regarding health and illness as social and psy-chosocial phenomena, in the light of theories…

    • 681 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Limited resources for health should be allocated to maximize the health benefits for the population served… and should be equitable or just; equity is concerned with the distribution of benefits and costs to distinct individuals or groups” (Wilker & Brock, 2006, Chapter 14). However, efficiency and equity can sometimes collide. In the H1N1 scare case, the first step is to identify and analyze the nature of conflict that surrounds the allocation of scare resource. The focus of value may arise amongst any combination of personal, professional, organizational, and community values. Personal values are individual beliefs and ideologies.…

    • 912 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Health Belief Model (HBM)

    • 883 Words
    • 4 Pages

    This study will be guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM). The HBM emphasis on how to predict health behaviour through consideration of the individual’s perceptions and attitudes an individual may have towards disease and negative outcomes of certain actions. The main construct of the model are perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, perceived barriers and perceived benefits (Janz & Becker, 1984). Any of these perceptions individually or in combination can be used to explain an individual’s health behavior. Recently, other constructs have been added to the HBM, thus the model now include self-efficacy cues to action and motivating factors (I. M. Rosenstock, Strecher, & Becker, 1988).…

    • 883 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    There are many unique contributions that the Public Health Practice makes towards improving population health. These contributions include factors such as, policies and programs in order to change health determinants, which in return will improve population health. The public health approach differs from the medical approach in a few ways. The medical approach focuses more on the diagnosis and treatment of disease, and also the biological causes of disease. The main focus of the medical approach is on individual health.…

    • 759 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    It means not having enough income to meet basic needs such as food, shelter, and clothing. There is a close connection between poverty and poor health. We must recognize that poverty has an impact on healthcare practices (Masters, 2017, p. 149). The destitute are often exposed to higher environmental health and personal risks. They have less information and have limited access to health care and hence leading to higher risk of illness and disabilities.…

    • 1290 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Public Health System The United States current system of health services is unbalanced and focuses more on curing an illness instead of prevention. It has been suggested that socioeconomic status is linked to health status and improvement will come from the effective application of public health techniques instead of focusing on persons already disease ridden. A scientific discipline within public health is epidemiology. This discipline studies the relationship between causative agents, morbidity and mortality. It helps to identify the risk factors and determine the distribution which is a public health concern and test for significance.…

    • 1699 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Complementary Medicine

    • 786 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Singer defines critical medical anthropology as a theoretical and practical effort to understand and respond to issues and problems of health, illness and treatment in terms of interaction between the macro-level of political economy, the national level of political and class structure, the institutional level of the health care system, the community level of popular and folk beliefs and actions, the micro-level of illness experience, behavior, and meaning, human physiology, and environmental factors. He wants health professionals and scholars to engage in system-challenging praxis that would uncover the correlation between social inequality and the working and living conditions. Also to uncover the hidden causes of poor health due to…

    • 786 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Conversely this model is individualistic in its approach to health and ignores how the individual fits within society, the social gradient, broader determinants of health i.e. socio economic status, the role of emotional wellbeing such as stressors on health, or recognise that not all illnesses are curable and it can be costly when unnecessary overtreatment of an individual occurs. Whereas the Social Model of health involves a wider community role on health by looking to address the determinants of health, tries to encourage an individual to take responsibility for their own health through health promotion, education, prevention campaigns, and looks to prevent illnesses where possible before they occur. Some limitations of…

    • 1463 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    But, how do the social determinants shape health? Health conditions can shape the social determinants in numerous ways. Components like health, shelter, food and the ability to take part in society contributes in shaping the healthcare system. It can cause side effects like stress and anxiety which can mentally affect individuals. It enhances the inadequate health care services that affect the public.…

    • 1397 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays