Stuttering: Disfluency In Speech

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According to National Stuttering Association, “Stuttering is a communication disorder involving disruptions, or “disfluencies,” in a person’s speech.” The word “Stuttering” can also be used for specific type of disfluency or an overall communication challenge that people who stutter face (Zebrowski, 1989).

The disfluency in speech is observed in prolongation (I love you Kkkkiran), repetition ( I li li li like you) , abnormal stoppages(no sound), interjections also known as fillers( uh, um, you know, like).There is another way to categorise stuttering : within word disfluency and between word disfluency. Within word disfluency such as syllable repetitions , prolongations , dysrhythmic phonation and tense pauses are very commonly observed by people as stuttered speech, however, between word disfluency like interjections, revisions, phrase repetitions and multisyllabic whole-word repetitions are less likely to be labelled as stuttered speech.(Hood: 1986).

Stuttering affects people of all ages. According to Stuttering Foundation, more than 70 million people stutter across the world which is 1% of the population. Stuttering is more common among males than females (Porfert & Rosenfield, 1978; Andrews,
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(Prasse & Kikano, 2008). For example, a child who is easily frustrated may be more likely to tighten or tense speech muscles when disfluencies occur. Such tension may increase how long a disfluency lasts. Listeners' responses to stuttering (e.g., teasing) can aggravate fluency difficulties as well. (Yaruss & Quesal, 2004). People who stutter vary widely in how they react to the disfluencies in their speech. Some appear to be minimally concerned. Others, especially those who have encountered unfavorable reactions from listeners may develop emotional responses to stuttering that hinder speech production further (Clompas & Ross, 2004). Examples of these emotions include shame, embarrassment and

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