Structure And Replication Of DNA

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The Structure and Replication of DNA

Introduction
The structure and replication of DNA is important for organisms to develop and survive as it what has the control over all of bodies functions. DNA is converted in to messages that are used to produce proteins molecules, important for bodily functions. Without DNA genes would not be able to performs tasks such as telling the body how to create proteins which in turn would not allow proteins to create enzymes, hormones and other important chemicals.

Structure
Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA is a chemical that carries all of the genetic information in all living organisms, however it is organised differently in each species. Depending on how each organism organises their DNA they are put in to
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If DNA did not replicate its self then the important functions of meiosis and mitosis would half the genome (complete set of DNA) size as half is put into the new cell without replenishing the lost DNA and the cell would quickly die DNA replication is the process which occurs at the beginning of cell division within a cell where a DNA molecule is copied and produces two identical DNA molecules. When a DNA molecule is copied, the new molecule will inherit all identical properties from the old DNA molecule. For DNA to be able to be replicated there are some important requirements that need to be met – an original DNA template, each strand of the double helix, which has two strands, is able to be used as a template. To form new strands free DNA nucleotides are needed. The enzyme polymerase is used to add new nucleotides to the growing DNA strands. Primers, which are short nucleic acid sequences, are needed in DNA replication as they are what starts the replication process …show more content…
By separating the strands a single one of them is then able to be replicated. When the strands are separated it creates a Y shape which is called a replication fork. A short primer from RNA is used as a starting point on one of the strands to replicate the DNA. A DNA polymerase enzyme, used to assemble nucleotides, binds its self to the leading strand adding new nucleotide bases to the strand. When the base are matched up the enzyme exonuclease removes the primers and the gaps are filled with more nucleotides. Finally the enzyme DNA ligase seals the strands to be continuous and they automatically wind back into a double

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