Nucleotides In The Life Of Dna

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DNA is a macromolecule that is used for instructions when creating proteins and other activities. It is because of this that DNA (and other nucleic acids) are essential for life to exist. DNA contains genetic code that primarily directs organelles in a cell to operate in a certain way. DNA also carries information regarding the traits of an organism. These traits are often passed from a parent cell to its offspring. This branch of biology is know as genetics. DNA also possesses a unique structure that allows it to perform all these actions. DNA is composed of hydrogen ,carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus. The monomers that make up nucleic acids are called nucleotides. Nucleotides consists of "a five carbon sugar molecule bonded to a nitrogenous …show more content…
DNA contains deoxyribose as a sugar base while RNA contains ribose as a sugar base. DNA is ideal for carrying genetic information and applying these instructions to facilitate life-sustaining functions. Eukaryotes (which contain a nucleus) have their genetic information stored in the nucleus in the form of chromosomes; while prokaryotes, (which do not contain a nucleus) have DNA floating in the cytoplasm in the form of plasmid. Nucleotides that make up DNA are very similar except for the difference in nitrogenous base that each one contains. These bases include adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine. When nucleotides join together they form a shape that looks like a twisted ladder (also know as a double helix). The bases of a nucleotide also determines what other bases it is paired with on the double helix. Adenine and thymine usually bond and cytosine and guanine are usually bonded together. The nucleotides that make up these pairs are called complementary bases. "The sequence of bases for rung to rung along the ladder stores the genetic information contained in the DNA molecule." Proteins determine largely the nature of the traits that are present in an …show more content…
DNA molecules can be very large. For example, "the nucleus of a single human cell contains more than 1 meter of DNA." In the nucleus, DNA is tightly coiled into structures know as chromosomes; chromosomes contain genetic information that if inherited by the offspring of the parent cell. Different creatures have different counts of chromosomes in there cells. Chromosomes contain sections that determine what traits an organism may have (called genes). The differences in genes ultimately determines the unique traits organisms possess. Organisms inherit genes from their parents meaning that the similarity in the genes that two or more organisms contain can show how closely they are related. This is interests me because it is fascinating to see where you come from and ultimately see how you developed your own 42 pairs of chromosomes from your parents. Its interesting to observe how similar and how different we are from the people that gave birth to us. You can explicitly compare several obvious features such as hair color and eye color, but you can also observe other things that are not as obvious such as the vulnerability to a diseases such as diabetes. This information is important to understand because it explains where you came from as well as where you received all the things that make your appearance

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