Dna In Biology

Improved Essays
DNA is a macromolecule that is used for instructions when creating proteins and other activities. It is because of this that DNA (and other nucleic acids) are essential for life to exist. DNA contains genetic code that primarily directs organelles in a cell to operate in a certain way. DNA also carries information regarding the traits of an organism. These traits are often passed from a parent cell to its offspring. This branch of biology is know as genetics. DNA also possesses a unique structure that allows it to perform all these actions. DNA is composed of hydrogen ,carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus. The monomers that make up nucleic acids are called nucleotides. Nucleotides consists of "a five carbon sugar molecule bonded to a nitrogenous base and a …show more content…
Eukaryotes (which contain a nucleus) have their genetic information stored in the nucleus in the form of chromosomes; while prokaryotes, (which do not contain a nucleus) have DNA floating in the cytoplasm in the form of plasmid. Nucleotides that make up DNA are very similar except for the difference in nitrogenous base that each one contains. These bases include adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine. When nucleotides join together they form a shape that looks like a twisted ladder (also know as a double helix). The bases of a nucleotide also determines what other bases it is paired with on the double helix. Adenine and thymine usually bond and cytosine and guanine are usually bonded together. The nucleotides that make up these pairs are called complementary bases. "The sequence of bases for rung to rung along the ladder stores the genetic information contained in the DNA molecule." Proteins determine largely the nature of the traits that are present in an organism. When DNA tries to create these and other kinds of proteins it is transferred into RNA and then carried to the ribosomes of a

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    Let’s understand functionality one by one: • DNA consists of encoded instructions which are necessary to maintain, assemble and reproduce. • Proteins play important role in movement, photosynthesis, vision etc. • RNA is used to make proteins from encoded instructions in DNA. From above, we can conclude that, DNA makes RNA and RNA makes proteins.…

    • 1548 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    Bacterial genes regularly found in operons. Genes in an operon were transcribing as a group. They have a particular promoter. One another operon consist regulatory sequence of DNA. This can act as binding site for regulatory proteins.…

    • 1325 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Dna Synthesis Essay

    • 795 Words
    • 4 Pages

    DNA is the genetic material of a cell that has a repeating chain of five-carbon sugars connected together. It has four organic bases which are called nucleotides. There’s also deoxyribose which is a sugar that is in a double helix shape. DNA molecules stores information in a code which is created by the sequence of their four nitrogenous bases that includes Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine. Also, DNA is often referred to as the double-helix.…

    • 795 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Eukaryotic Synthesis

    • 1359 Words
    • 6 Pages

    The relationship between codons and amino acids is known as the genetic code where it defines how sequences of codons specify which amino acid will be added next. Ribosomes are large structures within the cytoplasm that house the translation process and catalyze some of its steps. These structures are made up of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and protein subunits that provide a space for tRNA to bind to an mRNA template. Each ribosome contains 3 binding sites known as the A,…

    • 1359 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Transfer RNA Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a crucial component in Protein Synthesis. It serves as an adaptor molecule between the codon, the three nucleic acids and the amino acid after which a specific protein will be synthesized. It is the intermediate in Protein Synthesis which interprets the genetic code. Without tRNA, translation in prokaryotes or eukaryotes could not take place. Common Features of tRNA Molecule Each amino acid has at least one tRNA molecule.…

    • 851 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    In the nucleus, Smads are also able to participate in histone modifications and chromatin remodeling (Ross et al., 2006 [53]). Anyway, some transcription factors like Runx1, Runx2, and Runx3 in concert with R-Smads and/or Smad complex plays critical roles in mediating specific signals to regulate the transcription of ultimate target genes. Essentially, Runx2 regulate osteoblasts formation and activate the expression of other osteogenesis specific target genes. The β subunit of PEBP2 stabilizes Runx2 by preventing ubiquitin-dependent degradation (James, 2013 [54]). Upon activation of BMP…

    • 931 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    RNA Polymerases

    • 1199 Words
    • 5 Pages

    According to many scientists the main and most important function of RNA Polymerase (RNAPs) is transcription. So, what is transcription? Transcription is the construction of RNA chains using genes from DNA as templates. Since transcription is the process where the information from a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule everything must work together. Griffiths et all.…

    • 1199 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Nucleus Research Paper

    • 1230 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Free ribosomes and bound ribosomes are interchangeable. The cell ca change the numbers depending on its metabolic needs. The ribosomes read and translate codes from mRNA. The mRNA is sent as a messenger by the nucleolus to give the ribosomes the template for protein synthesis. The ribosomes take the template and hook together amino acids to create a polypeptide chain, protein.…

    • 1230 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Proteins are essential to maintaining cells by creating hormones and enzymes, and defending the cell. The arrangement of DNA and RNA bases dictates what protein is formed. When DNA is separated into a single strand, ribonucleotides attach to one of the strands and form messenger RNA (mRNA), through the process of transcription. When the gene is turned into a protein sequence by transfer RNA (tRNA), it is called…

    • 1175 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Nucleotide Essay

    • 1340 Words
    • 6 Pages

    They help us to detect some diseases and presence of some cells easily. They allow us to design and construct a new biological devices and systems for useful purposes. It allow us to expand the genetic code is one of the main stream ideas to synthetic life. It can help us to understand organization, exponential growth and autocatalysis of different cells. This GRC has the aim to develop on nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids in medicine, biology, chemical - and material sciences.…

    • 1340 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays

Related Topics