2. What Are Stem Cells (What Characteristics Define Them)?

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Question 2

What are stem cells (what characteristics define them)?

Stem cells are cells that has the potential to develop into different cell types in the body during early life and growth. They serve as an internal repair system , dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person is alive .When a stem cell divides it can either remain as a stem cell or can develop into a cell with more specialized function like muscle cell, red blood cell etc.
Two distinctive characteristics of stem cells are :-
• They are unspecialized cells which has the potential to renew themselves after cell division , sometimes after long period of inactivity.(Self Renewal)
• Under certain condition these cells can be develop into
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However the constitution article 40.3.3 mentions “The State acknowledges the right to life of the unborn and, with due regard to the equal right to life of the mother, guarantees in its laws to respect, and, as far as practicable, by its laws to defend and vindicate that right.”[1]
Which lead to the interpretation that stem cell research is prohibited in Ireland .Some rules related to the IVF was mentioned in the sixth edition of Medical Council’s A Guide to Ethical Conduct and Behaviour states which stated that 1)any ovum that has been fertilized shouldn’t undergo destruction deliberately 2)Any research involving creation of new life or destruction of invitro Human life will be considered a professional misconduct .
In 2000 Commission of Human Reproduction declared that the use of IVF embryos for research will be strictly prohibited with an exception of SCNT .It even mentioned that the use or generation of hybrid interspecies embryos along with reproductive cloning is
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Micropipette aspiration has a 2-10micron opening by applying precisely controlled suction force that typically ranges from 100-10000Pa.The limitations of micropipette aspiration is that the interpretation of the experiment are not straight forward we need to do analytical or computational models often to get the mechanical properties from geometric measurements of the aspired cells and applied pressure.The underlying assumption with the measurements are sometimes very difficult to validate.

Which has the highest elastic modulus: healthy red blood cell, red blood cell infected by Plasmodium falciparum, or red blood cell infected by Plasmodium vivax? Lowest? What are the implications for disease (i.e., what happens when the infected cells are stiff? Compliant?)

The elastic modulus of the red blood cell affected by Plasmodium falciparum is considered to be the highest as it stiffness increases still it reaches the schizont stage of infection .While the lowest elastic modulus is for the cell affected by Plasmodium

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