Stage Theories of Human Development Jean Piaget believed that all children mature through a series of distinct stages in intellectual development (Coon, 97). Many of these ideas came from him observing his own children and how they solved different problems. He believed in the use of assimilation which is the application of existing mental patterns to new situations, the new situation is linked to existing mental schemes (Coon, 97).
Piaget developed a series of stages that children go through throughout their lives. The first stage is the sensorimotor stage from 0-2 years. Within this stage he says that newborns are unable to create internal representations such as mental images. They lack object permanence which is an understanding
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The first stage is in the first year of life, trust versus mistrust. The basic attitude or belief of trust vs mistrust is established at this time. Trust is established when babies are given warmth, touching, love, and physical care (Coon, 97). Mistrust is caused by parents who are cold, indifferent, or rejecting. In the second stage, autonomy versus shame and doubt, ages 1-3, children express their growing self-control by climbing, touching, exploring and trying to do things for themselves (Coon, 97). The third stage, initiative versus guilt, ages 3-5, children move beyond self-control and begin to take initiative for themselves. They use their imagination, ask questions, and choose activities. The fourth stage, industry versus inferiority, ages 6-12 years, faced with new challenges by entering into school where they begin to learn new skills and success or failure (Coon, 97). The fifth stage of Erikson’s theory, identity versus role confusion, adolescence age, they begin to build their identity based off of their talents, values, life history, relationships, and demands of culture (Coon, 97). The sixth stage, which is intimacy versus isolation, young adulthood, the individual feels a need for intimacy in their life since they have established their identity. In the seventh stage, generativity versus stagnation, people want to express care for their children and the generations after them. The final stage occurs in late adulthood,