# Essay on Roman Mathematics

Introduction

The system of Roman numerals that we know today is a numeral system that originated from ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. The system used in antiquity was slightly modified in the Middle Ages to produce the system being used today. The grandeur days of Rome did not emphasize on mathematics as a discipline and discover new abstractions. The Romans were more absorbed in applying mathematics in engineering and architecture to improve the quality of their lives. This chapter presents the developments in the history of Roman mathematics and the engineering feats of the Romans.

5.1 The Roman Numerals in Ancient Rome The Roman numerals of old were derived from the Etruscans.

*…show more content…*

Other modern usage by English-speaking peoples

14th Century - The roman numerals replace by the Arabic numerals in Europe introduce by Al-Andalus. - The use of Roman numerals today is mostly restricted to ordinal numbers, such as volumes or chapters in a book or the numbers identifying monarchs or popes

In music theory a scale degrees or diatonic functions are often identified by Roman numerals (as in chord symbols) as follows Roman numeral | I | II | III | IV | V | VI | VII | Scale degree | tonic | supertonic | mediant | subdominant | dominant | submediant | leading tone/subtonic |

Modern non-English speaking usage

French, Portuguese and the Spanish - They use capital Roman numerals to denote centuries For example, 'XVIII' refers to the eighteenth century.

Italian

- The Italians take the opposite approach, basing names of centuries on the digits of the years quattrocento for example is the Italian name for the fifteenth century.

Alternate forms In the middle Ages, Latin writers used a horizontal line above a particular numeral to represent one thousand times that numeral, and additional vertical lines on both sides of the numeral to denote one hundred times the number, as in these examples:

I for one thousand

V for five thousand

|I| for one hundred thousand