Research Paper On The Crusades

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Keith L. Barnes Jr.
March 10, 2016
CHHI 301-B11
The Crusades
Many associate the Crusades as a dark period in Church history and are commonly referred to with disgust and anger. Most people associate the Crusades with religious persecution and unrestrained cruelty and death. However, despite the fact that there were definite atrocities performed, the Crusades began with a very noble purpose against a very real threat. Under the command of Pope Urban II’s, 1905 the crusades begin to merge efforts to answer the request of Alexius I of the Eastern Byzantine Empire. He made the call to the Western church to assist in the upcoming invasion of the Muslims in an effort to secure Jerusalem, the Holy Land. There were four distinct army units led by
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Pope Gregory VIII issued a Crusade bull calling for fasting and penitence. Three rulers answered the call, the first being William II of Sicily. It was at the suggestion of William that Richard I (The Lion-Heart) of England and Phillip II of France met and signed an agreement outlining their mutual goals of the Crusade. Richard’s first success was the defeat and capture of Comnenus and the conquering of Cyprus. Richard and Phillip than successfully took Acre. However due to disputes between Richard, Phillip, and Leopold of Austria, Phillip and Leopold left for home. A treaty was made between Richard and the Muslim leader Saladin, however Saladin was late in paying a ransom for the Muslim prisoners and Richard publicly executed all 2,700 members of the Muslim garrison. Saladin’s response was to slaughter most of his Christian hostages. Saladin tried to retake acre only to be defeated again by Richard. After this victory Richard marched toward Jerusalem, but unfortunately was stopped twice from taking the …show more content…
“The Third Crusade.” Lecture, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, December 8, 1997. Accessed October 12, 2015. http://www.umich.edu/~eng415/timeline/summaries/third_crusade.htm.
Knox, E.L. Skip. “History of the Crusades: The Third Crusade.” Lecture, Boise State University, Boise, ID. Accessed October 12, 2015. http://europeanhistory.boisestate.edu/crusades/3rd/index.shtml.

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[1] Louis Brehier, The Catholic Encyclopedia (New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908), s.v. “The Crusades,” accessed October 12, 2015, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04543c.htm.
[2] Lili Kivisto, “The Third Crusade” (lecture, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, December 8, 1997), accessed October 12, 2015, http://www.umich.edu/~eng415/timeline/summaries/third_crusade.htm.
[3] Lili Kivisto, “The Great Crusades” (lecture, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, December 8, 1997), accessed October 12, 2015, http://www.umich.edu/~eng415/timeline/detailedtimeline.html#AnchorThird.
[4] E.L. Skip Knox, “History of the Crusades: The Third Crusade” (lecture, Boise State University, Boise, ID), accessed October 12, 2015, http://europeanhistory.boisestate.edu/crusades/3rd/01.shtml.
[5] Knox, “History of Crusades: The Third Crusade”,

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