Radical Dualism In Patanjali's Sutra

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In Sutra 2.20 it is written ‘The Seer is but the force of seeing itself, appearing to see or experience that which is presented as a cognitive principle.’ I understand this as if Purusha or the unchangeable soul has the ability to see through one’s mind. Therefore even the soul and the mind are separated entities, since the former perceives world through the latter, but is not one with it, showing the idea of radical dualism represented in Patanjali’s Sutras.
For the ultimate liberation the internalisation of the dualistic nature of the world is cruilcal. Everything around us that can be perceived is there for a single reason, which is to clearly show to a practitioner the distinction between the seer and the seen. ‘Clear, distinct, unimpaired
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The aspirant clears his mind by exercising Tapas or right living coupled with self-enquiry, introspection and also meditation on pure inner Self in order to attain Self-realisation. An aspirant becomes wise or come to know the true concept of God by work, following Holy Scriptures and making his mind steady by meditation and other techniques, which are an important component of both Upanishads and Sutras. The focus of Upanishads is the identity of Supreme soul or Brahman and individual soul or Atman. In Isa-Upanishad IV. Atman is described as omnipresent whereas finite object can only occupy one object at a …show more content…
The fault is presumably in us, because of our ignorance. According to Isa-Upanishads IX., two extremes lead us to darkness, namely Avidya or ignorance and Vidya or knowledge. The later is usually a virtue but when cherishing it for mere intellectual pride, we fall into even greater darkness. Only when the higher consciousness is obtained one can feel united with all life, because the source of misery, the sense of diversity, is vanished. ‘He who sees all beings in the Self and the Self in all beings, he never turns away from the Self.’ Advaita Vedanta sees non-dual consciousness as the natural state but we have to be careful not tomix the term of oneness with sameness. Objects around us can have different appearances without being separate. For example, if I look at my hand my fingers appear to be different but they are all part of the same hand. This allegory tries to explain that objects regardless of their shape and appearance have the same source so that they are merely different expressions of a single non-dual

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