Racial Diversity, Integration and Equal Opportunity in Us Army;

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Racial Diversity, Integration and Equal Opportunity in US Army;
A Proud History of Progress

Table of Contents

Certificate of Authorship 1 Title Page 2 Table of Contents 3 Abstract 4 Introduction 5 Minority Service to the US Army - A Proud History 5 The Revolutionary War 5 The Civil War 6 Buffalo Soldiers 6 World War I and World War II 6 The Korean Conflict 7 Vietnam and the Mandatory Draft 7 The All-Volunteer Army 8 Army Demographics 8 Equal Opportunity and Sexual Harassment Complaints 10 Conclusion 10 References 12

The Army has a long-standing tradition providing
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1) The heroic service of black men during the Civil War coupled with aggressive lobbying by the Abolitionists would set the stage for the creation the first permanent black Army units.

Buffalo Soldiers

The laws of 1866 and 1869 provided for existence of four black Regular Army regiments: the 9th, 10th, 24th, and 25th Cavalries. (Sylvester, 1995) This is very significant, in that for the first time, blacks units are recognized as a professional, though segregated, fighting force. The black soldiers were named, "Buffalo Soldiers" due to their intense and relentless reputation for courage. (Sylvester, 1995) Buffalo soldiers would serve proudly in both the Indian Campaigns and the Spanish-American War.

One note of particular interest is that even though the Buffalo Soldiers were a segregated, all black fighting force, they earned the praise of future President, Teddy Roosevelt, and then Lieutenant John J. Pershing. Lieutenant Pershing praised the 9th and 10 Cavalry as excellent soldiers who fought shoulder to shoulder with white soldiers and were mindful only to their common duty as Americans. (Sylvester, 1995)

World War I and World War II

World War I and World War II would continue the Army's policy of racially segregated units. While over 400,000 blacks served (nearly 11% of the Army's total strength) in World War I only 10% of them saw combat. (MacGregor, 1985, chap. 1) The majority of blacks in both World War I and II served in combat

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