Pyruvate Essay

9877 Words 40 Pages
Register to read the introduction… aerobic cell respiration if oxygen available and anaerobic if unavailable; pyruvate enters mitochondrion for aerobic respiration; whereas pyruvate stays in the cytoplasm for processing under anaerobic conditions; pyruvate converted aerobically into carbon dioxide and water; whereas pyruvate converted anaerobically to lactate; large ATP yield when oxygen available/from aerobic cell respiration; no (further) ATP yield without oxygen;

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The electron micrograph below shows the ultrastructure of part of an animal cell.

[Source: Reproduced with the kind permission of the Electron Microscopy Facility, Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut, USA, and Professor Daniel G. Blackburn.]

(a) 12. (a) (b)

Identify the structure labelled I. rough endoplasmic reticulum/RER/rough ER / ribosome 1

Explain briefly how materials produced in the structure labelled I are
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growth/production of (extra) body cells; (do not accept cell growth) first stage of spermato/oo/gametogenesis / forming oogonia/spermatogonia; embryo development; wound healing / (tissue) repair / hair growth / (do not accept  replacemen t of skin cells; repairing cells) clonal selection / division of lymphocytes (for antibody production); Do not accept asexual reproduction. Do not award a mark if one of the first two answers is incorrect. 1 max (c) (c) Describe the importance of stem cells in differentiation. stem cells are undifferentiated cells; embryo cells are stem cells; stem cells can differentiate in many/all ways / are pluripotent/totipotent; differentiation involves expressing some genes but not others; stem cells can be used to repair/replace tissues/heal wounds; The graphs below show the normal menstrual

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