Polarization In Antenna

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Polarization in Antenna

Polarization is the basic thing used in transmission antennas for the propagation and reception of the signals. As we know that antenna emits electromagnetic waves in the space for the communication purposes. These two types of waves as depicted by the name Electro-Magnetic is a combination of electrical and magnetics fields. These two waves are mutually orthogonal i.e. oriented at an angle of 90o with each other. The general wave form is given as

Fig: Electromagnetic Waves
At the receiving side there is a problem that if we receive the magnetic wave also then there is an interference of the two waves and the message can be distorted and there is a loss of power in the message and we know that the power of the signal
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Based on the requirement one can select the either of the polarization techniques. Here we will explain a bit of all of them with their uses.
Linear Polarization In linear polarization the antenna can get the signal in any one of the dimension. The other dimensions of the signal will be nullified. This type is generally used in the antennas where we are dealing with the transmission and reception of horizontal and vertical antennas. In this, for example we want to receive horizontal signal, then we have dielectrics in the antenna places horizontal when these dielectrics come in contact with the horizontal wave they get polarized and we get the signal and when one the same antenna we get the vertical signal then we have zero polarization because as we know polarization loss factor is given as 〖cos〗^2 θ then in this case the angle is 90o thus we get cos290=0 thus polarization is zero. This can be shown in terms of waves
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both of horizontal and vertical placements. This increase the power level and work for both type of signals. This type of polarization is used when we are dealing with the signals which are mutually orthogonal and are of unequal amplitudes. In order to the extent of polarization will be dependent on the power of the signal and which is indirectly related to the signals amplitude. Thus for different we will have different extend of polarization of dielectric. This is to be noted that dielectric we will have the same direction of polarization which we need to

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