What Are Carbohydrates?

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Carbohydrates :

Carbohydrates are commonly identified as sugars, they are the 'staff of life' for mainly organisms. They are mainly rich class of biomolecules in nature, based on mass.
Carbohydrates are also known as saccharides, in Greek sakcharon mean sugar or sweetness.

They are generally distributed molecules in plant and animal tissues. In plants, and arthropods, carbohydrates from the skeletal structures, they also provide as food reserves in plants and animals. They are main energy source essential for various metabolic activities, the energy is derived by oxidation. Plants are richer in carbohydrates than animals.

Functions of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are the main energy source, in many animals, they are instant source of
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Ribose and deoxyribose sugars forms the structural frame of the genetic material, RNA and DNA.
Polysaccharides like cellulose are the structural elements in the cell walls of bacteria and plants.
Carbohydrates are linked to proteins and lipids that play significant roles in cell
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Physical Properties of Carbohydrates
Steroisomerism - Compound shaping same structural formula but they differ in spatial arrangement. Example: Glucose has two isomers with respect to penultimate carbon atom. They are D-glucose and L-glucose.
Optical Activity - It is the rotation of plane polarized light forming (+) glucose and (-) glucose.
Diastereo isomeers - It the configurational changes considered C2, C3, or C4 in glucose. Example: Mannose, galactose.
Annomerism - It is the spatial configuration with respect to the first carbon atom in aldoses and second carbon atom in ketoses.
Chemical Properties of Carbohydrates
Ozazone formation with phenylhydrazine.
Benedicts test.
Oxidation
Reduction to alcohols

Structure of Carbohydrates
There are three types of structural representations of carbohydrates:
Open chain structure.
Hemi-acetal structure.
Haworth structure.
Open chain structure - It is the long straight chain form of carbohydrates. Example:

Hemi-acetal structure - Here the 1st carbon of the glucose condenses with the -OH group of the 5th carbon to form a ring structure.

Haworth structure - It is the presence of pyranose ring

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