Phil Study Guide Essay

837 Words Jun 6th, 2013 4 Pages
Phil 4 Midterm Study Guide

Introduction:
- Ontology is the study of being, kinds of things that exists, the different kinds of being. What is ultimately real?
- Material: spatial/public/mechanical
- Immaterial: nonspatial/private/teleological
- Materialism: Matter is truly real and immaterial things are not
- Idealism: Ideas are ultimately real
- Dualism: Reality is both material and immaterial
- Monism: There’s one single reality

Lau Tzu (Laozi):
- Taos analogy to water: water takes all shape, water doesn’t compete, it does nothing yet there’s nothing it can do, takes no form, all forms can be taken.
- Taos analogy to uncarved block: un-carved block is preconceived, preconceived thoughts/values makes it harder to
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It’s connection to the divided line is that by leaving the cave the prisoner was able to reach the intelligible place.
- Plato’s view of reality account for both change and immutability: Transcends world of change. All truths are immutable. World of forms changes.
- Plato was a dualist

Shankara:
- Connection between Atman and Brahman: Atman is a manifestation of Brahman.
- Difference between Brahman and Tao: Brahman is universal, spiritual, idealist. Tao is not separating us. It is the mental process.
- The relation of the body to Atman is that it’s always dependent upon the Atman. Because most of us would think of our body as part of who we are. But the intelligent man would say that I am a soul united with a body. The covering of the Atman, which is called “the vital covering”, is made up of the vital force and the five organs of action. The body is called “the physical covering”. It comes to life when it is enveloped by the vital covering.
- The relation of the universe to Brahman is that the universe is an effect of Brahman. It can never be anything else but Brahman. Apart from Brahman is does not exist. Brahman is the reality, one existence absolutely independent of human thought or idea.
- Shankara was a monist
- Shankara would answer the question of “Who am I?” by saying that I am Brahman.

Berkeley and Locke:
- Berkeley insists that “to be is to be perceived” because if we can

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