Gastric Secretion Essay

991 Words 4 Pages
Normal pathophysiology of gastric acid stimulation and production.
Normally the stomach holds around 50cc of fluid. There are several stimuli that work together in the complex process of the digestion process (Huether & McCance, 2012). There are three phases of gastric secretion, first being the cephalic phase, which is stimulated by the thoughts , smells and taste of food. Stimulation releases acetylcholine and the release of gastrin-releasing peptide, thus indirectly stimulates hydrogen ions. The second phase is the gastric phase, which is stimulated by the expansion of the stomach. Partially digested proteins and amino acids activate gastrin from G cells. Gastrin activates acid secretion which stimulates the release of somatostatin, which turns into a looping cycle. The last phase is the intestinal phase, stimulated by histamine and digested protein, hormones are released to stop gastric acid secretion, to include secretin and cholecystokinin (McPhee & Hammer, 2010). Acid and pepsin secretion are balanced from chemotransmitters by many pathways that mediate inhibitory and stimulatory actions. Gastric acid allows the digestions of protein and the absorption of many minerals, medications and hormones. The oxyntic area in the stomach produces 80 percent of the parietal cells
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The effects from smoking increases the risk of cancer in the mouth, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, colon, and rectum. Smoking weakens the lower esophageal sphincter valve allowing for the reflux and causing GERD. Smoking increases the risk of PUD, by increasing the risk of slows the healing processes of ulcers and increases the chances of recurrent ulcers. Smoking increases the risk for H. pylori infection causing gastritis and PUD. Smoking has been found to increase pepsin, decrease the blood flow to the lining of the stomach, and decrease the production of sodium

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