i) What causes PID and what happens to the body when someone gets it?
Pelvic Inﬂammatory Disease (PID) occurs when an infection of the cervix, or to a lesser extent the vagina progresses into the upper genital tract, PRODIGY (2005). Warell (2003) deﬁnes an infection as an invasion of the body by harmful organisms (or pathogens) such as bacteria, fungi, protozoa or viruses. In the case of PID the two most common causes of the initial infection are the bacterium Chlamydia Trachomatis or Neisseria Gonnorhoeae. These two bacteria are most commonly referred to as the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) chlamydia and gonnorhea and are commonly passed through unprotected vaginal intercourse. Both infections present similarly, as
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Assessing whether Lizzy has capacity places a responsibility on the practitioner to provide her with sufﬁcient information to inform her fully of the clinical importance of seeking immediate treatment. Then assessing whether she understands the risks involved and also if she is able to retain the knowledge long enough to make an effective decision. In the case of Gillick, the court held that children who have sufﬁcient understanding and intelligence to enable them to understand fully what is involved in a proposed intervention will also have the capacity to consent to that intervention. This is sometimes described as being ‘Gillick competent’. A child of under 16 may be Gillick competent to consent to medical treatment that requires their consent. If Lizzy is deemed Gillick competent and is able to give voluntary consent after receiving appropriate information, that consent will be valid and additional consent by a person with parental responsibility will not be required. It is, however, good practice to involve Lizzy’s family in the decision-making process, if she consents to her information being shared, DOH (2009). Another challenge arises as Lizzy states her reason for not consenting to travel to hospital is that she is scared her parents will ﬁnd out about her sexual activity and drug abuse. When assessing capacity you should also