Parental Socialization Goals : Parents ' Beliefs About The Qualities And Skills That Their Children
The parental socialization goals refer to parents’ belief about the qualities and skills that their children should develop in the process of growing up. According to the Eco-cultural theory, socialization goals is the beginning level of parenting strategies (Carra, Lavelli, Keller, & Kärtner, 2013). Multiple studies have shown that parents’ socialization goals and their conceptions of good parenting become clear around the same time (Carra et al., 2013). Parents ' perceptions actually motivate and guide their parenting behaviors. The independence (individualism) and interdependence (collectivism) are two cultural orientations that may shape parents ' beliefs. Parents in independent cultural contexts tend to focus on the development of autonomous and self-enhancement, and parents in interdependent cultural contexts tend to concern the harmonious relatedness among group members (Carra et al., 2013; Graf, Röder, Hein, Müller, & Ganzorig, 2014; Mosco & Atzaba-Poria, 2016).
Naturally, parents who come from different racial/ethnic groups tend to value individualistic socialization goals and collectivistic socialization goals differently. The Early Adolescent Cohort Study is a longitudinal and mixed-methods research which studies racially/ethnically diverse in New York City. Adolescents came from six multiethnic secondary schools participated this study with their mothers. Harding, Hughes, and Way (2016) compared data from totally 185 mothers who…