Key Themes Of Parental Incarceration

Studies on parental incarceration have revealed three key themes: the increased likelihood of poorer education, lack financial stability, and maladaptive behavior. In the following section, I will elaborate on the empirical finding of poorer education. Wright and Seymour (2015) explained poverty is often the core issue for a range of difficulties that have harsh penalties for children, including limited parental educational achievement. A parent’s education achievement often affects children education outcome as goes the saying, ‘the apple does not fall to far from the tree’. Additionally, Eddy & Poehlmann affirmed the loss of financial support could in turn affect the child’s school strength (as cited in Shlafer, Gerrity, Ruhland & Wheeler, …show more content…
Internalizing behavior includes; depression, anxiety, withdrawal and externalizing behavior consists of; delinquency and substance use. Other problems children of incarcerated parents may face include intellectual delays, and difficulties in school. When children ¬¬are exposed to various types and constant stress, they begin to develop symptoms from PTSD. Stress factors may include but are not limited witnessing the arrest of a caregiver, unstable care arrangements, secrecy and shame. Children’s response to trauma differentiates in accordance to age (as cited in Wright & Seymour, 2015). Their evidence found disorganized feelings and behaviors in early and later childhood and maladaptive behaviors in later childhood. Maladaptive / anti-social behaviors include lying, stealing, aggressive or isolated behavioral disorders and depression. Among older children, sexual misconduct, absenteeism, delinquency, substance abuse and gang activity were constant. Additionally, children’s coping generally varies depending on their age, as younger children are least likely to have learned psychological skills necessary to cope with trauma and thus will makes use of counselling. If they are unable to respond adaptively, they will react maladaptively. Turnery argues that children with a incarcerated parent face a greater risk developing learning disabilities and behavior problems of ADD (Attention Defecate Disorder), / ADHD (Attention Defecate Hyper Disorder), than children who experienced instances of parental divorce or death. Furthermore, children who are living with their fathers before they are imprisoned, are more vulnerable to

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