Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Of Study

Oral health is a state of being free from infectious or disease and it has a profound effect on general health (Kiyoshi-Teo & Blegen,2015). According to Pettit, McCann, Schneiderman, Farren & Campbell (2012), there is association between chronic oral infection with the heart and lung disease. Patient with underlying disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is higher risk of aspiration of contaminated respiratory if oral care was not performed and this actually will decrease patient’s own body defense (Pasquale, Aliberti, Mantero, Bianchini & Blasi, 2016). Patient’s oral health may be compromised by the medical condition or treatment, equipment and patient’s ability to attend
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Thus, oral care awareness is necessary to prevent related oral health problems particularly the accumulation of plaque and stimulate local oral immunity during the early period of hospitalization (Cohn & Fulton, 2006). Dental plaque is a diverse microbial community on tooth surfaces embedded in a matrix of polymers of bacterial and salivary origin. Immature dental plaque can be regarded as normal since it is present continuously on the tooth surface but mature dental plaque is dominated by pathogens linked to dental caries and periodontal disease (Haliza, Normastura, Azizah & Muhd Khairi, 2016). The early prevention of plaque to the patient who will undergo surgical intervention may reduce the mortality rate, reduce the complication during surgery, longer hospital stay and increased medical costs to the patient (Ying, Jung, Tsyr & Meei, 2011). According to Ganz et al. (2009) stated that barrier in performing oral care will affect 8-28% of patients undergo surgical …show more content…
This will place the patient at risk for infection if oral care has not been done for the patients. As a result, the oral cavity hygiene worsens and the number of bacteria increases excessively, leading to bacterial colonization of oropharynx (Hsin, Li & Chih, 2014). Furthermore, the potential pathogen will be introduced from the oral cavity, into the respiratory system through the endotracheal tube resulting in infection such as ventilator-associated

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