The causative agent of tuberculosis is Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. It was discovered in 1882 by Robert Koch.It is the highly contagious aerobic pathogen which mean they requires oxygen to grow and it is non-motile.It is an intracellular pathogen which means that infects the macrophages of the bodies immune system.And the reason this bacteria is very effective is because of the waxy coat of Mycolic Acid that onvolves the bacteria.Thia makes staining very difficult and as a key virulence factor for the bacteria.
Transmission and Symptoms of Tuberculosis:
Transmission is through infected droplets in the air.When someone that is sick with Tuberculosis coughs,sneezes, bits talks infected droplets can get …show more content…
When Tuberculosis is exposed into the air it can get into our nose,mouth and once it get into the nose and mouth it goes down the trachea and goes often to the two tubes of Bronchi and eventually gets into the lobes of the lung and alveoli.This is where the Tuberculosis causes the most trouble is in alveoli.There the macrophages recognize the point bacteria and go to invade and attack it but once the macrophages pick up the bacteria because of the mycolic acid they can’t penetrate and kill the bacteria.So the bacteria will eventually start replicating itself in the macrophages killing the cells and then start to attack the healthy cells.
Diagnosis is made by positive Tuberculin skin test. A small amount of antigen is injected underneath the skin and have to see if there is raised bump and if there is a raised bump it is confirmed that the person he\she has Tuberculosis.It is confirmed by X-rays of the chest and examination of sputum.
The first effective treatment for TB was developed in the 1940s-streptomycin.TB is currently treated with a combination of 3-4 drugs with different purposes:
• Antibacterial Activity: e.g. …show more content…
Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDRTB) which is still a problem.
Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDRTB):
MDRTB is a tuberculosis that is resistant to atleast isoniazid and rifampin. Which are the two most powerful firstline anti-TB drugs.This can be due to many things,It can be due to mismanagement or due to misuse of the drugs.So patient don’t finish their full course of treatment or patient unable to receive effective therapy maybe in third world countries where they don’t have access to drugs to drugs that we do or the healthcare physician don’t prescribe the right amount or the right amount of time.
So how can we solve this problem.First of all quick diagnosis by health care providers and when this healthcare providers diagnose this patient they have to monitor the response to the treatment if its working or not and follow the recommended treatment guidelines for the proper amount of drugs to be administered in time and they need to make sure that the therapy is