Jugular Vein Essay

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The internal jugular vein (IJV) is the major vein in the neck, draining the brain, neck and the upper thorax. It is the continuation of the sigmoid sinus, where at the jugular foramen at the base of the skull forms the superior jugular bulb after receiving the inferior petrosal sinus. The vein descends in the neck in close relation to the carotid artery and the vagus nerve, enclosed together in the carotid sheath. During its descent in the neck it receives numerous tributaries which include the pharyngeal veins, facial vein, lingual vein and the superior and middle thyroid veins. At its termination, it forms the inferior jugular bulb and receives the ipsilateral subclavian vein and together
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But, studies like Nasser et al and Wu et al have noted no increase in the cross-sectional area of the IJV [18, 35]. They have contemplated that, the increase in the venous return and the resulting distension is nullified by the healthy heart in less than a minute by increasing its stroke volume. They have also noted that the IJV becomes smaller in a certain subset of patients. Maratea et al have studied the effects in cardiac surgical patients and have come to a similar conclusion, wherein the cross-sectional area of the IJV does not increase predictably with Trendelenburg position …show more content…
The needle is inserted 600 to the vertical and advanced into the vein with gentle aspiration on the attached syringe. Entry into the vein is confirmed by visualising the needle in the vein on ultrasound image and by the presence of blood in the aspirated syringe. During the short axis examination, only a part of needle is visualised and hence it is known as ‘out of plane’ view.
b. Long axis examination [42]:
The linear transducer probe was placed on the neck, initially to obtain the short axis view of the IJV and later rotated 900 to obtain the long axis view. The needle insertion point is directly beneath the most proximal end of the transducer probe. The needle is inserted 300 to the vertical and advanced towards the vein with gentle aspiration. The needle entry into the IJV is visualised directly on the ultrasound image and also by the presence of the blood in the syringe. As the entire length of the needle is visualised during the puncture, it is known as ‘in-plane’ view.

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