Theories Of Interpersonal Intelligence

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Gardner (1983) suggests the existence of eight relatively autonomous, but interdependent, intelligences rather than just one single construct of intelligence. In Gardner's (1983) point of view, intelligence is a combination of different abilities; he defines intelligence as “the ability to solve problems or fashion products that are of consequence in a particular cultural setting or community” (Gardner 1993, p.15). Accordingly, he classified human intelligence into linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic intelligences; recently, he added existential intelligence to his theory (Gardner, 1999). Emotional Intelligence is a part of Gardner's (1993) interpersonal intelligence. …show more content…
Linguistic/Verbal Intelligence (LI)
Gardner (1983) proposes LI as the intelligence of using words appropriately to make meaningful written and spoken forms of language. To him, LI is "the capacity to follow rules of grammar, and, on carefully selected occasion, to violate them" (p. 77). This intelligence emerges early in life, and involves a number of inseparable elements including the ability for doing syntactic analyses, gaining literacy, and language learning (Gardner. 1993).
Linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligences are most often associated with academic accomplishment. The former is also important for providing explanations and descriptions. Gardner (1999) describes a poet as a person who is endowed with a high level of linguistic ability. Convergent aspects of LI assessed by standard intelligence tests include vocabulary and reading comprehension. Of activities which require both LI and logical intelligence and different thinking styles include storytelling, persuasive speech, and creative
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The movement started by Shaughnessy (1977). She provided assumptions that even if the students are not writing like native speakers, their compositions which is systemic and standard, can indicate their development in writing skills. Other researchers such as Bartholomae (1980) supported her assertion and claimed that basic/elementary writings or compositions could provide the clue to understanding the developing steps students strive toward target-like writing; i.e. not only do they show the path of development but they provide the basis for meaningful language use “that the unconventional features in the writing are evidence of intention and that they are, therefore, meaningful, then we can chart systematic choices, individual strategies, and characteristic processes of thought.” (p. 255). He added that those who are elementary writers should not be claimed to not have any command of the writing skills; but they are able to provide a good control over what they write. Although students’ offered texts appear to be ill-structured, their underlying principles can show the level of their growth as writers (Bartholomae,

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