Sulfonamides: The Role Of Antinamids In Micro-Organisms

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Antibiotics are the most important group of drugs which play a significant role to protect humans and animals against bacterial infections (3). In other words, the use of antibiotics is the most conventional method for treating humans (4). These drugs also are used in fish farming industries in order to improve growth (5). Antibiotics are naturally absorbed by the human body after the use. Therefore, much of the drugs or their metabolites are removed from the body through the urine and feces into sewerage system (6, 7).
In recent years, the fate of active pharmaceutical compounds in environment, especially in water sources is one of the emerging issues in environmental chemistry. This is why that many scientists got interested to find the
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Sulfonamides are valuable antibiotics in order to prevent the infectious diseases spread and sulfadiazine [4-amino-N-(2-pyrimidinyl) benzenesulfonamide] is one of the eight common sulfonamides (4, 10). Creating the problems in biological treatment processes and disrupting of treatment operation units and bio accumulating in various micro-organisms are the problems due to the presence of sulfonamides in effluents.(6, 11).
The chemical structure of sulfadiazine is shown in Figure 1. Sulfadiazine is a strong antibacterial agent that has reported very high concentrations of 1,160 micrograms per liter in the groundwater and surface water downstream from the sewage and pharmaceutical wastes disposal (6, 12, 13). Sulfadiazine can cause health and environmental problems and also bacterial resistance after entering the food chain (14, 15). Different methods to remove antibiotics have been studied such as biological treatment (8), absorption (4) and Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs)
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Despite all the mentioned advantages, reaction of PSF with the pollutants is slow and in order to accelerate the reaction rate, catalyst is needed. The activation of persulfate are mainly carried out by electrolysis, transition metal ions, UV radiation and heat (20). Iron ion (Fe2+) is an effective catalyst is used for activating the persulfate ion reaction rate. Fe2+ stimulates the persulfate ions and produces sulfate radicals which have higher oxidation potential ( , ) than persulfate alone (17, 21). It has been demonstrated that at elevated pH, can exhibited stronger oxidative ability than and could efficiently degrade many organic pollutants (18). The general principles of the AOPs based on persulfate/ron can be summarizes in equation 1 as below (9,

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