Ice Cream

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INTRODUCTION

Ice cream coined from the term iced cream is a frozen dessert made from milk and cream and mixed with other ingredients to bring various kinds of flavors. Sometimes they are mixed with fruits or sweets as toppings to bring out different flavours. Normally sugars are added in the mixture but sometimes other types of sweeteners are also added. Sometimes artificial colourings and flavorings are also added to bring out different flavours. The ingredients mixed properly are stirred well for incorporating air and to prevent ice crystals, thus forming smoothly textured semi solid foam which can shaped into different shapes.
There are different types of frozen desserts that comes under the term ice cream like Dairy ice cream, Gelato,
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It is reported that the Chinese civilizations were credited to create the first ice cream dating back to 3000 B.C. They used salt and saltpeter as ingredients to freeze the syrup more easily. Roman civilizations used to bring ice from the mountains and used fruit syrup as toppings. Arabs used milk as as ingredient for ice cream and mixed with sugar and flavoured with rosewater, dried fruits and nuts.

The present day ice cream was invented in Italy in 17th century and vanilla was the first flavor to be made. The first ice cream machine was not used before 1800’s and Nancy Johnson was the first person who gave the world its first ice cream machine in 1840’s but she did not patent it although the records shows that she filed a patent in 1843. Mr. Willian Young in 1848 patented the machine which was aptly named “Johnson Patent Ice Cream Freezer”. This early example of an ice cream maker involved turning a crank by hand to allow the ice and salt to freeze the ingredients and give them an iced
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During the formation of ice cream, the processing of ingredients creates the microstructure. It consists of ice crystals, air bubbles and fat droplets, size ranging from 1 pm to 0.1 mm and a viscous solution of sugars, polysaccharides and milk proteins, known as the matrix. Ice cream consists of all three states of matter: the solid ice and fat, liquid sugar solution and the gas. A typical ice cream consists of about 30% ice, 50% air, 5% fat and 15% matrix (sugar solution) by volume. The solid and gas are small particles in the form of ice crystals, fat droplets and air bubbles in a continuous phase in the matrix.

The following decribes the functions of different components of ice cream:

Ice crystals: Ice crystals give solidity to the ice cream body. Ice crystals are formed when the water at the base starts to freeze. The size of the ice crystals determines how fine or grainy the ice cream is. So the main objective to be considered while forming ice cream is to keep the size of the ice crystals as small as possible.

Fat: The role of fat is to add flavor, provide density, stabilizes the base mix and smoothens the

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