Explain Why You Add Nucleotides

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1. What is a DNA barcode?
DNA barcoding is fast, accurate method of identifying plant and animals, or products made from them. It’s a DNA sequence that uniquely identifies each species of living things by comparing them with known barcodes in large online databases.

When you get to the section where the animation separates into plant and animal cells, select animal cells: 2. What are the two steps taken at the beginning of the process to break down the cell membrane? a. Adding lysis solution to tube which dissolves membrane bound organelles b. Twisting a clean pestle against surface and grinding the tissue which breaks up the cell walls and other tough materials
3. What is the first step to separate the cellular debris from the DNA?
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What is the function of primers?
Primers attach to sites on DNA strands that are at either end of the segment you want to copy. They are powerful tools for copying very specific DNA sequences so there is almost no chance they will target the wrong sites.
4. Explain why you add nucleotides.
They are genetic building blocks that are used to create billions of DNA copies.
5. What is the function of DNA polymerase?
DNA polymerase molecules act like tiny machines that read the DNA code and then attach matching nucleotides to create DNA copies.
6. What is special about the DNA polymerase used in PCR?
The particular DNA polymerase has been specially selected to withstand high head of PCR reaction.
7. Name the apparatus that will heat and cool the sample.
DNA Thermal Cycler
8. Why is the sample heated to almost the boiling point?
At this temperature the DNA double helix separates creating two single stranded DNA molecules.
9. Why is the sample then cooled?
At this temperature single stranded DNA molecules naturally pair up. However, there are many more primer sequences than DNA strands in the tube. The primers crowd their way in and lock onto their target before strands can rejoin.
10. Why is the sample then brought up to 72 degrees
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What is the function of gel electrophoresis?
Way to sort and measure DNA strands according to length. This technique is also useful for separating other types of molecules, like proteins.
2. Where are DNA samples placed in the gel?
DNA samples are placed into wells at one end of the gel.
3. What makes the DNA move across the gel?
By adding electrical current DNA moves.
4. Why do DNA fragments of different lengths travel to different locations on the gel?
**Short fragments move through the wells in the gel more quickly. Over time shorter fragments in the sample will move further away from the starting point than the longer fragments. DNA fragments of the same length will move at the same speed and end up grouped together.
5. Why is the DNA stained?
To make the DNA visible to the naked eye.
6. Is each band on the gel made up of only one DNA segment?
*Each band contains DNA molecules of a particular size.
7. Explain the function of each of the following pieces of lab equipment. a. agarose- Used as diagnostic tool to visualize the fragments b. gel mold- Allow gel to presume a

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