Essay On Earthquake Building
Damage caused by earthquake activities which harm regular functioning of building is the key problem which happens because of conventional non-engineered structures. They were constructed with traditional methods of construction and particularly use of engineered items like stone, abode, bricks and wood. Experiences in past earthquakes have shown that many buildings lack basic resistance to earthquake forces.
1.1 Statement of problem and sub-problems
Traditional buildings lack the safety measures, therefore in the present scenario we need to build earthquake resistant buildings according to level of earthquake .One of the major problems is differential settlement, i.e.; tilting of super building due to upward …show more content…
Codes include variety of designs procedure making it possible to adjust accuracy. Structural design is viewed as a broader part of planning. Interdependence of general planning, construction design, structural design should be taken into account. A design is based on limiting probability of different limit states (ultimate and serviceability).
1.6 Importance of study
Past earthquakes don’t offer resistance to seismic activity. Seismic effect may cause severe damage ranging from serviceability level damages to safety level damages. Therefore, earthquake resistance structures have been presented so as to reduce seismic effect. Goal of study is to find methods which can help in prevention from damages and withstand seismic activities on structures in comparison to conventional counterparts. Other goal is to prevent loss of life and loss of functioning due to earthquake activities.
1.7 Review of related literature
A procedure for evaluation of differential settlements of buildings during earthquake Xiaoming by YUAN, Shangjiu MENG2, Zhaoji SHI and Rui SUN 
Earthquake-Resistant Design Concepts By the National Institute of Building Sciences Building Seismic Safety Council 
Some Concepts in Earthquake Behaviour of Buildings by C. V. R. Murty Rupen Goswami A. R. Vijayanarayanan Vipul V. …show more content…
For ordinary sections, it is necessary to ensure that, even if damaged, there are no detrimental effects on adjacent areas.
3.3 Specific treatments of data for each subproblem.
3.3.1 Sub-problem 1
Liquefaction is a major problem. Soil liquefaction is where saturated or partially saturated soil looses strength because of external forces such as earthquake shaking or changes in conditions of stress, solution to the following sub problem is Isolated foundations It is circular, square or rectangle slab of uniform thickness. Sometimes, it is stepped to spread over a large area. The following can be used where independent footings are provided individual spaces. Columns must not be very closely spaced. This increases tensile strength of soil. Fig 2
Raft foundation; It is a thick concrete slab reinforced with steel which covers the entire contact area of the structure like a thick floor. Sometimes area covered by raft may be greater than the contact area depending on the bearing capacity of the soil