- Deferred costs: costs that are not recognized immediately, but must be paid later
- External costs: the transfer of the costs to society
- Pollution costs: expenses to correct pollution when it is occurred
- Pollution prevention costs: costs to prevent pollutions from happening.
2. What is cost benefit analysis (CBA)? What are the key steps for CBA?
- Cost benefit analysis is a formal quantitative method for assessing the costs and benefits of competing uses of a resource or solutions to a problem and deciding which is the most effective.
There are four key steps for CBA :
- Identification of the project to be evaluated.
- Determination of all impacts, favorable and …show more content…
- Excess number of a certain species would lead to shortage in certain resources.
- Because of variation among individuals, some have a greater chance of obtaining needed resources and likelihood of serving and reproducing than others.
- From one generation to generations, individuals showing favorable variation will increase and those having unfavorable variations will decrease.
5. Compare the climax communities and successional communities.
❖ Climax Community
• Mix of species for a long time
• Have many specialized ecological niches
• More kinds of organisms and kind of interaction
• Recycle nutrients and maintain a relatively constant biomass
❖ Successional Community
• More generalized niches
• Less kinds of organisms and interaction
• Accumulate large amount of new materials.
6. Describe of the biomes:
❖ Grassland :
• Climate: seasonal rains and drought
• Precipitation: 50-150 cm per year
• Grasses, drought-resistant trees, fire