Different solutions to poverty in urban areas
Poverty can be defined in two ways, which are absolute poverty and relative poverty. In terms of absolute poverty, Murray (2004:2) suggests that the lack of an adequate income and cannot gain access to basic necessities to provide for basic human needs-food, clothing, warmth and shelter- are a clear indication of poverty. In a relative way, there was an assumption that a certain standard of living was normal, and that those living below this, while they might not be starving or homeless, were certainly poor, which are called relative poverty (Murray, 2004).
Nowadays people are in the more industrialised and technologically advanced societies. However the global poverty is
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More specifically, the provision of environmental health infrastructure and service are creating income and employment (Practical Action Consulting, 2009). “Good health, mental and physical, is an important determinant of employment, productivity, and income” (Watkins, 1995). In addition, improve the standard of sanitation would save the lives of 2 million children a year from diarrheal diseases and dehydration (Perlman, Hopkins and Jonsson, 1998). Therefore, improve standard of sanitation is quite effective to solve urban poverty. 2.2 investments in education: “Investment in the education of poor people can reduce their vulnerability and expand their opportunities” (Watkins, 1995). Moreover, Investment in education can provide the poor people opportunity to have job and learn the skill, which might be useful to reduce urban poverty. Obviously, the low income of poor people is partly a consequence of their low levels of skill and literacy (Jespersen, 1994). When the poor people are educated, the earning capability and employment prospects are increased also would bring wider benefits for society. For example, the share of public funds allocated to higher education in South-East Asia has averaged around 15 per cent for the past three decades, but in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa it has averaged 24 per cent (Watkins, 1995). These are raising the skills-base of an economy, reduce poverty and inequality, and promote growth. Therefore,