Deal And Kennedy's Theory Of Organizational Culture

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Organizational culture is one of the most fascinating and exclusive topics for management researchers. It has been defined as a programming of mind, which distinguishes the member of one organization from one another (Hofstede, 1991) or a system of shared values and believes within an organization, which guides the behaviour of the employee (from French et al. 2008). Deal & Kennedy’s (1982) phrase ‘the way we do things round here’ a definition that might more properly describe ‘culture’, but more fully defined by Hofstede (1991, p.262) as ‘the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one organization from another’. Culture cannot be precisely seen, but can sensed and felt. Culture provides guidance to behaviors …show more content…
Deal and Kennedy (1982) claim that the impact of a strong culture in an organization can lead to great productivity and performance, which can then enhance the effectiveness of the organization and companies can gain profit from it’s employees. This reflects a functionalist approach that presents culture as a tool used in a company aiming certain objectives hereby treating the workers as reactive players. Weaker culture can stop productivity being made in the organization. Schein (1995)’s level of analysis divides organizational culture into three levels; observable culture, shared values (these are at the surface of organizational culture, those aspects that can be seen such as the way employees dress or interact with each other), and common assumptions (these assumptions are difficult to see because they exist at the unconscious level, they are the deep and hidden aspects such as thoughts and feelings). This level of culture claim that at the first level, shared values which can provide a powerful motivation mechanisms and can make up patterns of behaviour in observable ways. Schein’s model illustrates that the deeper one got, the difficult it becomes to observe and examine organizational …show more content…
Whereas values are important elements of organizational culture, studies have demonstrated that organizations showed more differences in practice that in values (Hofstede, 2001 p.394). Hofstede (2001) explained the opposite results that were found among national cultures by the fact that values are acquired in an individual’s early life and main in the family. This claim supports the view that organizational culture can be explained better in organizational studies. Values are not directly visible to the employees but it can be assumed that organizational values are expressed in organizational practices. Therefore, values can be derived from already existing practices within an organizational or department. As previously mentioned, in a strong organizational culture, the employees will have the same sets of shared values such as ideas on how a particular organization should operate. Peters and Waterman (1982) who strongly influenced this view argued that the top companies were the ones characterised by values to which its employees were strongly committed. Many researchers and consultants assumed that successful cultures have employees with similar basic assumptions and values (White, 1988). Evidence is limited to few studies, Calori & Sarnin (1991) and Denison (1990) stated a relationship between organizational culture and performance. However, Brown (1998),

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