Coronary Artery Disease Essay

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Pathophysiology behind Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary artery disease also known as CAD is a condition where there is a build up on the inside lining of the artery usually composed of cholesterol or plaques. This can cause the narrowing of the coronary artery lumen, which can then reduce the volume of blood that pass through them. The lack of poor blood flow can lead to myocardial ischemia, which is a lack of blood flow to the heart and it can lead to heart tissue death. Another condition associated with CAD is atheroma. Atheroma starts to develop when the endothelium part of the artery is destroyed. When the endothelium part of the artery is destroyed an accumulation of cholesterol, fats and lipoproteins start building up at the site of the injured wall. Over time when the narrowing of the arteries can lead to angina or chest pain because of the lack of blood
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Angina is usually associated with stress, and since the body is under going stress due to the poor blood flow the body may experience angina. A patient may feel a tightness of the chest as well as pressure. Another co-morbidities associated with CAD is SOB or shortness of breath. This is also caused by the poor blood flow that makes it harder for the heart to pump enough blood to the entire body leading to develop SOB or fatigue. A major complication would be a heart attack. A cholesterol plaque ruptured or a blood clot can block the heart artery, which can cause the heart muscle to be damage leading to a heart attack. Heart failure can also be a cause of CAD. The depravation of oxygen due to the flow blood flow can lead to heart tissue death leading to a weak heart. Another disease associated with CAD is arrhythmia also known as abnormal heart rhythm. Damage to the heart or inadequate blood supply can interfered with the hearts electrical impulse causing the heart to go out of

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