Congenital Heart Disease Essay

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Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a defect related to the cardiovascular system. CHD alters the way blood flows into the heart. The irregularity of the heart in people with CHD is developed from birth though symptoms of the condition may not be present until adulthood. During the time of birth the closure of the ductus arteriosus (DA) should occur about 15 hours after birth though functional closure may be delayed for up to 3 months of life. Thus, an open DA is the functional indicator of congenital heart disease. The primitive heart tube undergoes adjustments in the first trimester to become the heart. The heart is made up of four chambers: the right atrium, the left atrium, the right ventricle, and the left ventricle. There are two atrioventricular valves: the tricuspid valve in the right side and the mitral valve in the left side. There are also the pulmonary and aortic valves that originate from the right and the left ventricles. The heart is located in the mediastinum. During embryonic development, oxygenated blood from the placenta flows into the right atrium through the inferior vena cava. Blood from the right atrium flows to the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery then to the DA which …show more content…
One example of a CHD can be classified as a heart valve defect in which the valves located inside the heart may become too compact and/or leak due to abnormal blood flow. This defect puts pressure on the heart which can cause chest pain or fatigue. Based on the defect the heart can heal on its own over time or treatment such as medication, pacemakers, or surgery can resolve the problem. Another defect of CHD is cyanosis, where the main symptom is discoloration around the mouth and fingertips caused by deoxygenated red blood cells. In CHD, other symptoms such as systolic murmur, loud abnormal heart sound, high blood pressure, or poor femoral pulse require a referral to a

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