Conquest, Revolt, And Nationalism In The 19th And Early 20th Century

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In the late 19th and early 20th century, the major themes of the world were conquest, revolt, and nationalism. Benefiting from the Enlightenment, the enlightened Europeans turned to be “the most powerful, most innovative, most prosperous, most expansive, and most widely imitated people on the planet” (Strayer, 775). They were a global dominance and exercised enormous power over the rest of humankind. After resisting to Europeans’ conquest, colonial Asians and Africans started to seek their identity and belonging. Influenced by powerful Europe, the idea of nationalism spread to the countries that maintained its formal independence while confronting the West. On the other hand, Karl Marx inherited the idea of progress from the Enlightenment, and …show more content…
But under the European rule, the colonial societies progressed due to the infiltration of European culture and economy. In particular, the acquisition of Western education helped them to think about what people believed and in how they defined the societies to which they belonged. Ram Mohan Roy’s letter to the British governor-general of India presents this eagerness, “as the improvement of the native population is the object of the Government, it will consequently promote a more liberal and enlightened system of instruction” (Strayer, 914). The idea of seeking more liberal and enlightened system from Roy is from the idea of progress. Chinese Emperor Guangxu issued an edict on education in 1898 mentioned that “changes must be made to accord with the necessities of the times…We must substitute modern arms and western organization for our old regime; we must select our military officers according to western methods of military education…”(Strayer, 961). The leaders of China decided to learn from the West. These types of ideas, like liberty and equality, were transformative from the Enlightenment and have guided human behavior over the past several

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