Chicken Feathers Case Study
Tamrat Tesfaye1 Bruce Sithole1, 2 Deresh Ramjugernath1, 3
1Discipline of Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
2Forestry and Forest Products Research Centre, Natural Resources and the Environment, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Durban, South Africa
3Pro Vice-Chancellor: Innovation, Commercialization and Entrepreneurship, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
Abstract: More than 11 billion pounds of unused feathers result from the poultry industry worldwide every year, which in effect impose a difficult disposal process to the environment but chicken feather contain 91% keratin protein. In addition to keratin, feathers contain other fatty and waxy substances. After plucking …show more content…
For the purpose of initial scoping trials, commercial bleach with trade name XXX was used and contains XXX g L-1NaOCl (equivalent to 4% w/v available chlorine at the time of manufacture), and XXX g L-1sodium hydroxide (NaOH).
Chemicals used for feather treatment were 15% sodium hypochlorite, ethanol absolute, methanol, ether, 30% hydrogen peroxide, Cationic Surfactant, and n-hexane supplied by xxx. Sodium hydroxide pellets, and sodium dodecyl sulphate powder were supplied by xxx.
Equipment used in this study is presented in three parts, equipment used for lab scale experiments, large scale equipment and analytical equipment.
A Boltac 6-unit mixer was used for initial scoping trials for feather decontamination and cleaning (Figure xxx). Each unit had a working volume of 1 L and stirring speed up to 100 rpm without temperature control.
A Breville BFP300 and a Kenwood FP920 blender processor (Figure xxx) was used for lab scale