# Physics 261 Lab

Improved Essays
Lab Report #1

Physics 261-001
Author: L. Cason
Lab Partners: A. Longo, K. Harrell
Date: 3/16/16

Objective: For this lab, the objectives were to learn how to use lab equipment such as the Lab Pro interface and the Logger Pro software and analyze the data collected using Excel. In order to achieve this Newton’s Law of Heating and Cooling was compared to the data collected by a thermometer attached to the Lab Pro.

Theory: Thermometer’s measure temperature through thermal equilibrium. Heat is transferred from an object to the thermometer at a rate proportional to the temperature difference between the two. Newton’s Law says

Where T is the thermometers temperature, To is the objects temperature, and ΔT/Δt is the average rate
The vertical scale has been kept from 20 °C to 26°C, in order to show the slight variations in temperature readings throughout data collection. Figure 1 shows the room temperature to be approximately 23°C. Using the statistical analysis function on Logger Pro, the average room temperature was given to be 23.07°C.

Figure 1. Room temperature as measured by Logger Pro. Remains around 23°C.
Figure 2 shows the data collected when the thermometer was held in the group member’s hand. Figure 2. Temperature as it rises to equilibrium with the hand as measured by the Logger Pro. Sharp increase then levels off around 34°C.
Temperature in the graph increases most drastically when the hand and thermometer are far from equilibrium. As the temperature of the thermometer reaches that of the hand the slope becomes flatter.
Analysis: Table 1 shows a sample of the data points collected for the room temperature trial.

Table 1. A sample of data collected at room temperature
The average temperature reported by excel for the room was 23.07°C. The average for the sample of data given is 23.03°C. To check for accuracy the standard deviation was calculated using the data in Figure 2. Standard Deviation was shown to be 0.0368 °C. Therefore the average room temperature was 23.07±0.0368
The plot can be seen in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Slope (°C/s) versus temperature difference (°C).
As displayed by Figure 3 the data for the hand temperature test follows the proportionality of Newton’s law of heating fairly well except when the difference in temperature is near 6°C.
Conclusions: It is clear in figure that the temperature of the air remains constant throughout the entirety of the sample collecting time. In further experimenting collecting data from other thermometers may lead to a more accurate depiction of the air temperature. Each thermometer could make up for the variation of the others and the average received at the end would be more accurate than the one we received in this lab. It is also clear that figure 3 displays that the data from the hand temperature experiment mostly fits with Newton’s law of heating. A slight shift of hand on the thermometer may have caused the error at a temperature difference at 6°C. Also smaller regions towards the flatter zone of the slope may result in less scatter of points at the top of the

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