Oral Liquid Formulations

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Section Two - Oral Liquid Formulations

(1) Characteristics of Suspensions:
The oral liquid dosage form chosen to formulate was that of a suspension. Given the criteria of Drug Y it was thought best to formulate the drug as a suspension.
Suspensions can be defined as ''a class of materials in which one phase, a solid, is dispersed in a second phase, generally a liquid.'' (1)
There are many characteristics of suspensions that are relevant when formulating such a dosage form. They are as follows;
(1) Whilst in storage the suspended particles can sediment to the bottom of the bottle. While this is a normal occurance for suspensions upon standing, thought needs to be given to the redispersal of the suspended particles. Upon shaking of the bottle,
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This can be controlled by a number of factors. Factors such as adding pH buffers, salt forms etc.
(6)Suspensions should also be palatable. This is an important factor for this formulation especially as it is to be dispensed to children. Children prefer sweet tasting products. Often the taste of a drug 'is more noticeable in solution rather than an insoluble form.'' (3)
(2) Disadvantages and Advantages of Oral Liquids
There are many advantages and disadvantages of oral liquids for use of delivering a drug.
Advantages:
(1) Oral liquids are an easier drug dosage form to swallow than a solid form. This is very important for the eldery, children and those that have diffaculty swallowing.
(2) The active pharmaceutical ingredient can be administered in a homogenous fashion. It is dispersed throughout the product.
(3) The dose of the drug can be controlled and altered by adjusting the volume measured.
(4) Due to the active substance being in solution, it 'does not need to undergo dissolution.' (ref) As a result of this, the drug reaches its target much quicker and acts faster than it would if it were in solid dosage form.
(5) Some drugs in solid dosage form can cause gastric irritation. However oral liquid formulations prevent this from
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A solid dosage form would not have these issues.
(4) Oral liquid formulations are bulky and take up shelf space. Therefore storage of oral liquids can be problamatic. Also if breakage of a container occurs, the product is lost.
(5) Oral liquid formulations can often require special storage conditions due to the nature of the drugs formulated in them. For example, some drugs may require to be stored in very hot or very cold conditions. For example, some antibiotics require refrigeration which could be an issue on a long journey.(4)
(6) Patient compliance can be an issue. The patient is required to measure the dose in an accurate volume using a spoon or oral syringe. However this may lead to variations in dose for many patients.
(7) Microbial growth can be prevalent in oral liquid formulations. To prevent the growth of mircooganisms, preservatives are added. In some cases, patients are allergic to certain preservatives and so may not be able to take certain oral

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