Risk factors like race predisposed infants to death in this particular period. Several studies has examined the extent to which infant mortality rate differences are related to race. The result suggested that there is a gap between black and white infants. From 1971 to 1988, the mortality rate for black infants declined much more slowly than the decline for white infants (Marian et al, 1998). On the other hand, infant deaths occurring during the first week of life declined, which was initially the most frequent period of infant death. These different rates of decline resulted in a shift in the distribution of infant deaths by age. Infant mortality rate from infections diseases, including infections specific to the perinatal period has also declined, which reflected the improvements in public health infrastructure (e.g piped water and sewer), housing, and medicine .
We also find that there were other causes rather than the race that account for infant death in the period between 1970 to 1995, such as short gestation and unspecified low birth weight, newborn affected by the maternal complications of the pregnancy, respiratory distress syndrome, newborn affected by complication of the placenta, cord, and membranes. According to Marian, Dorman and Rosenberg (1993), mortality from congenital anomalies, was leading cause for for infant death and it was common in white male especially in the neonatal