Sclerosis: Structure Of Atheroscle Cells

Chapter 1
Atherosclerosis

Structure of the normal artery:

Cell types composing the normal artery:
Endothelial Cells:
The endothelial cell (EC) of the arterial intima constitutes an important contact surface with blood. It plays an important role in vascular homeostasis. This blood compatibility is due to presences of heparan sulfate proteoglycan molecules on the surface of the EC. These molecules can serve as a cofactor for antithrombin III, which inhibit thrombin. The surface of the EC also contains thrombomodulin which activates protein C and S. Also the EC can produce tissue- and urokinase- type plasminogen activators which activate plasminogen into plasmin.(Fig.1) ECs are originated from a common origin known as blood islands in the embryo’s periphery.1
Arterial Smooth muscle cells:
Smooth muscle cell (SMC) is the second major cell type of the normal artery. These cells contract and relax thus controlling
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It depends on formation large number of antigen receptors. The antigen presenting cells include the macrophages, dendritic cells and ECs. They allow the antigens to activate T-cells. The activated T cells then secrete great amount of cytokines that modulate atherogenesis. The T helper cells are divided into two types. T helper 1 subtype (Th1) that secrete proinflammatory cytokines that lead to plaque destabilization. Th2 cells produce cytokines that can inhibit inflammation. Cytolytic T cells express cytotoxic factors that can promote apoptosis of SMCs, ECs and macrophages. Death of these cells occur in the atherosclerotic lesion and may lead to plaque progression and complications. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) produce transforming growth factor –beta (TGF-β) and interleukin-10 which have anti-inflammatory action. B1 cells produce antibodies which can protect against atherosclerosis in vivo while B2 cells promote atherosclerosis by activating proinflammatory

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