Case Study 1.1 The Cardiovascular System

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1. The cardiovascular system consists of the following-
Blood – It is a red color fluid in the body.
Heart – It is also called the control center of our body. It pumps and collects blood to and from the various parts of our body.
Blood vessels – Blood vessels are path through which transport medium circulates in our body.
2. The functions of cardiovascular system are as follows-
Transportation- It transports blood to all the parts of body. The blood delivers oxygen and nutrients and eliminates carbon dioxide and waste products from our body.
Protection- The cardiovascular system is responsible for the protection of our body by forming white blood cells or Leucocytes or White Blood Corpuscles. WBC’s helps in fighting against the
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Effect of age on Respiratory system – Aging causes decrease in air-flow and gaseous exchange in the lungs. It weakens the respiratory muscles and the effectiveness of lung defense mechanisms also declines. Moreover the chest walls becomes rigid as it loses it’s elasticity. Aging also causes the sensory receptors in the airways to lose their senstivity.
6. Pathophysiology of Angina Pectoris – It begins with your heart muscle not receiving a satisfactory stream of blood for any reason, which may cause a burning pain in your chest. A person may also feel suffocation and have difficulty in breathing. A person’s blood pressure can also take a part in the pathophysiology of angina. High blood pressure can lead to the pain in the chest. The pain can also be due to any blockage in the arteries of the heart. The common signs and symptoms include-
Pain and discomfort in the heart and it may radiate to arm, shoulder, neck or throat.
Fatigue or tiredness
Shortness of
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The common signs and systems are-
Chest Infections
Cough and production of phlegm

7. The common risk factors shared between angina and emphysema are:-
Cigarette smoking- Emphysema is common among cigarette smokers. It can damage the interior walls of arteries which can further block the flow of blood and can lead to pain in the chest(angina).
Increase in Age- Inhalation of pollutants for a long period of time can increase the risk of emphysema and older people of more than 45 years of age are at more risk of angina than younger people.
9. Dietitian – As John is having poor diet, dietitian can suggest appropriate diet plan for him.
10. Artificial Acquired Immunity is a immunization which is induced by the transfer of antibodies/antigens from one person to another artificially. It can be further of two types-
Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity- It is induced by transfer of antibodies.
Artificially Acquired Active Immunity- It is induced by vaccine which contains antigens. Thus it enables the body to produce it’s own antibodies to help fight against any infection.


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