Buad 304 Study Guide Midterm 1 Essay

1145 Words Apr 16th, 2013 5 Pages
PERCEPTION:
Perception
• How people make sense of the world by organizing and interpreting sensory input.

Factors Influencing Perception
• Internal
• External
• Situational

Attribution Theory
• We judge people differently based on the meaning the ATTRIBUTE to their behavior, mainly, if it was internally of externally caused.
• Ways to determine internal vs external: o Distinctness – do they act differently in different situations?
• Yes – external. No - internal o Consensus – do other people behave the same way in this situation?
• Yes – external. No - internal o Consistency – does this person respond the same way over time?
• Yes – internal. No – external o Key: our perceptions of people are based on our judgments
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Extrinsic Needs
• Satisfied externally
• Ex. Pay, Promotions, Recognition

Intrinsic Needs
• Satisfied within yourself
• Ex. Develop yourself, do meaningful work.

2. Equity Theory:
• the need to see things as fair and equitable in comparison to the jobs and outcomes of others.
• Compare inputs (effort and experience) with outcomes (rewards and promotions).
• Inequities: o Under-rewarded o Over-rewarded

Job Enrichment
• Increase worker control and employee involvement.
• Horizontal – broaden narrow tasks o Increase skill variety, task identity, and task significance
• Vertical – give workers more of managers’ control o Increase autonomy and self-control
• Feedback for Performance

• Key: to be motivated by work, people must see work as meaningful, take responsibility for their actions and get feedback on performance.

Expectancy Theory
• The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the expectation that efforts will lead to strong performance, strong performance will lead to an outcome, and on the attractiveness of that outcome.
Expectancy – effort leads to good performance
Performance – good performance leads to outcomes
Valence – how much a person values those outcomes.

• E →→→→ P (efforts lead to good performance)
X
• P →→→→ O (performance leads to an outcome)
X
• O

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