Biomolecules Essay

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Chapter 2: Biological Macromolecules (Biomolecules) in Living Systems
Organic Molecules: are composed of long chains or rings of carbon atoms which are found in living systems.
Inorganic Molecules: are of a simple structure which is not found in living systems.
Biological Macromolecules (Biomolecules): are the result of organic molecules which consist primarily of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. Composed of thousands of atoms, biological macromolecules are polymers formed by a series of repeated monomers. There are four significant classes of biological macromolecules; Lipids, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids and Proteins.
Lipids: are molecules which occur naturally and aid in the structural components of cell membranes, signaling and energy
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Triglycerides are hydrophobic; insoluble to water.
Phospholipids: instrumental in the formation of cell membranes consisting of amphipathic molecules. Phospholipids are similar to triglycerides; however they contain only two fatty acids with the third occupied by an electrically charged molecule which is hydrophilic and soluble in both water and fat, commonly referred to as an
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(Glucose/Fructose)
Disaccharides: are formed by two monosaccharides or two sugar molecules. (Glucose+Fructose)
Polysaccharides: are formed by a series of monosaccharides. (Glucose+Glucose+Fructose)
Nucleic Acids: are responsible for the storage and transference of genetic information. Comprised of nucleotide monomers, the two important classifications of nucleic acids are Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA). Each Nucleotide consists of Five-Carbon Sugars, a phosphate group and nitrogenous base. DNA polymer is the result of a Deoxyribose Five-Carbon Sugar. RNA polymer is the result of Ribose Five-Carbon Sugar.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): is where stored molecules of genetic information await transfer to Ribonucleic Acid. DNA is composed of double-stranded nucleic acid.
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA): receives genetic instruction from Deoxyribonucleic Acid to direct various metabolic cell activities. RNA is composed of single-stranded nucleic acid.
Proteins: are amino acid polymers covalently bonded. Polypeptide chains are formed of 20 Peptide connected amino acids; new proteins are created through the various number and arrangement of amino acids within the string. Proteins play a vital role in metabolic reactions, defense, transfer, support, movement, regulation and

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